Developing a Comprehensive Training Program

September 12, 2017 | Autor: Walter Radu | Categoria: Public Administration, Education, Technology, Political Science, Fire Science
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Developing a Comprehensive Training Program

Walter W. Radu
Eastern Michigan University
School of Fire Staff and Command
August 19, 2011

The problem currently being experienced by the Dearborn Fire
Department (DFD) is the nonexistence of a comprehensive training program. A
training program that will establish the foundation to deliver high-quality
service to Dearborn citizens and the community. Just as important is the
objective is to help ensure the safety of our firefighters in fire and
rescue operations. This program will also provide incumbent firefighters
with the skills, knowledge and attitudes so as to become proficient in
their position or rank.
The purpose of this research was to determine what components,
elements and methods are required to develop a comprehensive training
program. In achieving these objectives, the DFD will also be maintaining an
effective and efficient organization, while using the least amount of
resources. This research used action and evaluative methodologies to answer
these questions;
1. What useful components are required to define an effective
training process?
2. What useful elements are necessary to develop and implement
a successful training program?
3. What resources are available to help municipal fire

The resources used to answer these questions were collected through
printed publications mainly from Halle Library at Eastern Michigan
University. Internet sources and an external survey by department members
were also used.
By identifying and answering these questions, the DFD will be able to
establish and implement the "best practices" in current fire service
training programs. These practices could be developed and implemented into
DFD training policies and procedures, with the approval of the Chief of the
Department. The current direction of the administration is focused on the
future. It has a vision and positive outlook on where we as an organization
are headed.

Table of Contents

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Table of
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Background and
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Appendix G…………………………………………………………………….... … page 48


The DFD has been without a training officer for almost two years.
Training has taken a back seat due to budget constraints and organizational
change within the hierarchy. With our newly promoted Fire Chief, we have
begun the slow process for re-establishing a Training Officer. The current
problem is the deficiency of training and commitment to develop a
sustainable program. Our department training division has followed a
reactionary process vs. one of continuous awareness. It lacks strategic
planning and a successful delivery format.
The DFD training program lacks a structured curriculum and consistent
delivery model. Also absent is an evaluation process to measure its overall
effectiveness regarding job performance. This has resulted in inconsistent
incident operations. In addition, this has also resulted in the inability
to measure the in-house training and core skills of our members.
The purpose of this applied research project is to develop a
structured curriculum for the DFD Training Division. This curriculum will
be both comprehensive and consistent to meet the needs of the organization.
These needs include current safety standards, delivery models, evaluation
methods and the establishment of an effective records management system. So
as to accomplish these tasks, a cultural awareness and strategic plan is
needed within our organization.
The purpose of this study will also identify the best practice
components in effective training programs. This study will identify the
most successful curriculum, methodologies and delivery models used in
training programs for the fire service. The elements of the training
program will aim to assure operational consistency between all department
members. In performing this research study, DFD members' safety and well
being will be enhanced during emergency operations. This defined program
will also help focus the department's limited training resources where they
would most benefit our organization.
Background and Significance
Significant changes have occurred internally, due to personnel
retirements and promotion of younger less experienced members. Almost ten
additional Fire Officers will retire by July of 2012. In this researcher's
opinion, this will equate to a decrease in efficiency and effectiveness of
suppression services and fire rescue operations. In addition to this
problem, the DFD was without a permanent Fire Chief for approximately two
years. The department was under the control and direction of the sole
Deputy Chief during this timeframe. The Deputy Chief's background was
within the EMS Division the previous ten years. Further, the Training
Division has been vacant since 2009. There is currently no one assigned to
schedule, develop, or oversee training.
The quantity and quality of training has been minimal and has not met
the standards or guidelines of the fire service. There has been a lack of
structured curriculum set forth by the organization. The training has been
delegated in the interim to in-house methods. These in-house methods are
performed by who ever steps up on that given shift tour. There are three
battalions working out of four stations. This equates at times to twelve
different standards. This has lead to substandard training at best.
Further more, the quality of training provided is also inadequate for
the safety of the firefighters and the citizens alike. "Injuries and
lawsuits are directly proportional to the quality of the training
programs." (Davis 1991) In understanding the seriousness and scope of this
issue as a department, we can better prepare for our future. This will be
accomplished through continuing education and training.
The significance of this project to the DFD is the systematic creation
of an effective and efficient training program. The creation and
implementation of a training program would better serve our community. In
addition, the development, enhancement, encouragement and support of each
individual member will be this programs ultimate goal. If we are not
learning, then we are not growing as a team.
By defining a comprehensive training program for our department, we
will be headed in a positive and safe direction. This researcher's hopeful
resolution is to improve the fire and emergency services' capability for
response to and recovery from all hazards. In addition, this researcher
hopes to reduce risk at the local level through prevention, mitigation
and records management. Documentation of such activities will be paramount
to a successful training program
Literature Review
An extensive literature review of fire service publications as well
as private industry text was conducted. These materials were reviewed to
gain insight into the subject, necessity and components for a comprehensive
training program. These materials were obtained through the Learning
Resource Lab at Eastern University as well as Michigan eLibrary inter-
library loan system.
Legitimacy in Training
Training is a core activity for fire departments to ensure that every
firefighter can perform competently as an individual and every company is
prepared to operate as a high performance team. Fire service training must
anticipate high-risk situations, urgent time frames and difficult
circumstances. (Ward, 2006 ) The importance of training in the emergency
services cannot be overemphasized. It provides basic knowledge required to
perform the assigned tasks safely and efficiently, ensures (through
testing) that knowledge has been learned, and reinforces knowledge through
refresher training or periodic practical training evolutions or scenarios.
(Fire Emergency Service Instructor , 2006)
Today a firefighter's survival depends, literally and figuratively on
that firefighter's commitment to learning and on the fire organizations
desire and ability to provide valid opportunities for that learning to
occur." (Ryan, 1995) A firefighter's professional success and credibility
depend on his or hers success and the ability of peers and the community to
recognize those skills. Because of this, careers in emergency response
professions require a personal and organizational commitment to both
initial and continuing education. (Ryan, 1995)
Ryan (1995) believes a fire service training division should encourage
innovation and personal excellence among its members. Its goals should
embody professionalism and reflect its department's mission statement. What
then binds our members together around a common identity and sense of
destiny? Who are we as an organization? What defines us? What does it mean
to be Dearborn Firefighter? Do we truly love and appreciate our profession
or are we going through the motions to collect a paycheck and then go onto
to a second profession? According to Battalion Chief Ed Schoales of FDNY,
"The uniform is supposed to say something about you. You get it for
nothing, but it comes with a history, so do the right thing when you're in
We must collectively restore that pride and honor of being a
Firefighter. Dedication, commitment and taking ownership are just a few
pieces to this puzzle. "The team that became great didn't start off great,
it learned how to produce extraordinary results." (Senge 1990) We as an
organization have a duty and responsibility to learn and grow. Not only for
effective service delivery to the citizens of Dearborn, but also as our
brothers/sisters keepers. "The organizations that will truly excel in the
future will be the organizations that discover how to tap people's
commitment and capacity to learn at all levels in an organization." (Senge,
A training program should ensure that the necessary knowledge, skills,
ands attitudes are established, maintained, and enhanced, and in that sense
the training and education of department members should remain consistent
even as the needs of the community change and the services delivered by the
organization continue to increase. (ICMA, p.58)
Establishing Cultural Change
Understanding this purpose and mission is what allows people to make
their work compatible with others' work in the organization and brings them
together around a common vision. In addition, this information makes it
possible for them to be innovative, take initiative, and be self-directed
in their work." (Salka, 2004) These are just some of the questions that
this researcher believes are needed for a successful training division and
learning organization.
To build a learning –centered culture and foster positive behaviors
and attitudes managers (Lieutenants/Captains) must set an example,
demonstrating their commitment to learning initiatives. The support of
senior managers (Battalion Chiefs) is considered the most important element
in employee buy-in and the successful adaptation of any initiative.
Employees will benefit by acquiring, applying and sharing new skills and
knowledge gained from the learning culture. (Business Training, 2010) This
is one of the areas this researcher believes has the most influence, in
creating a learning/team culture. (McCormack, 2003) Our officers are an
important link to implementing a comprehensive training program. Their
leadership skills will prove essential. "Great leadership works through
strong relationships, and relationships are reinforced by qualities such as
communications, trust, credibility, transparency, and consistency of values
and actions." (Salka 2004) "By making your organization's mission and
objectives tangible to your people, you can draw on your relationship with
them to align their goals and their efforts with those of the
organization."(Salka, 2004)
Internal Customers
The diversity of demographics in the fire and emergency service is
increasing as society grows. The majority of the fire and emergency
services is comprised of younger generations, predominately the Gen Xers
and the Dot Coms, millenniums, or nexters. The influence of family,
history, tradition and media create individuals within one group that have
strong ties to the learning characteristics of the previous generation.
This knowledge of generational diversity should reinforce the idea that
students are individuals and should be treated as such. (Fire and
Emergency Services Instructor, 2006)
Dot Coms, Millenniums, Nexters
This age group could be considered the future of society. They were
born after 1980 and have the following characteristics:
High knowledge of technology
Enjoyment of visual stimulation (computer games and television)
Appreciation of diversity
Willingness to work and learn but usually wants instant
gratification in the form of tangible results for their efforts
Broad worldview
Acceptance of nontraditional families and lifestyles
High expectations

Since the beginning of the new century, they have been exposed to
terrorism, war and the uncertainty that both bring. They are experiencing
what the traditionalists did in World War II and baby boomers did during
the Vietnam War. In addition, those individuals who were activated as part
of military reserve and National Guard units have been faced with drastic
changes in their personal and family lives. This generation will continue
to fill the fire and emergency services classrooms and bring with them
these experiences and values. (Fire and Emergency Services Instructor,
I mention this particular generation, not only because they are the
majority of the firefighters representing the DFD, but because of their
learning characteristics. If we as an organization can better understand
our members and how they learn, we can construct a program or internal
environment that nourishes them.
(Coleman, 2003) sums it up best. At the center of this entire concept
of learning, whether we're talking about officers or organizations is the
notion that the individual matters. The development, enhancement,
encouragement and support of the individual is extremely important.
Unfortunately, we in the fire service don't think too much in terms of
individuals with respect to our delivery systems. We focus on teams and
emphasize that the fire company is the basic building block of most
departments. The challenge here might be the need to develop mechanisms
that place more emphasis on the individual while asking the team to perform
at a specific level.
Needs Analysis
A Training Needs Analysis (TNA) is used to assess an organization's
training needs. The root of the TNA is the gap analysis. This is an
assessment of the gap between the knowledge, skills and attitudes that the
people in the organization currently possess and the knowledge, skills and
attitudes that they require to meet the organization's objectives. These
required objectives can be met by following the federal, state and local
regulations and NFPA standards.
The training needs assessment is best conducted up front, before
training solutions are budgeted, designed and delivered. The output of the
needs analysis will be a document that specifies why, what, who, when,
where and how. More specifically, the document will need to answer these
Why do people need the training?
What skills need imparting?
Who needs the training?
When will they need the new skills?
Where may the training be conducted?
How may the new skills be imparted?
There are so many ways for conducting a Training Needs Analysis, depending
on your situation. One size does not fit all. Is the purpose of the needs
assessment to:
Lead in to a design of a specific purpose improvement initiative
(e.g., customer complaint reduction)
Enable the design of the organization's training calendar
Identify training and development needs of individual staff during
the performance appraisal cycle
Training Needs Analysis Method Employee Performance Appraisal

In many organizations, each employee's manager discusses training and
development needs during the final part of the performance appraisal
discussion. This method suits where training needs are highly varied
amongst individual employees. Typically, the manager constructs an employee
Performance Development Plan in collaboration with the employee being
appraised. The Plan takes into consideration:
The organization's strategies and plans
Agreed employee goals and targets
The employee's performance results
The employee's role description
Feedback from internal/external customers and stakeholders, and
The employee's stated career aspirations
The employee's completed Performance Development Plan should document the
area that requires improvement, the actual development activity, resource
requirements, expected outcomes and an agreed time frame in which the
development outcome will be achieved.
You may find some commonality amongst individual training and development
needs identified in the various performance appraisals. In this case, it
may benefit the organization to review and classify each of the needs and
convert them into appropriate training courses (or other interventions).
The next step is to prioritize their importance and aggregate the results
so that you end up with a list of courses and participant numbers against
each. Then negotiate a delivery schedule that fits in with
managers/supervisors and employees while still keeping an eye on your
budget. (TNA)
In addition, there are many "Likert" scales used today in the business
world and fire service. Below are two such examples. The first is the two-
point scale, which the DFD uses. The second scale is a five-point and is
recommended by experts.

Two-point scales

These scales arise in organizational cultures that encourage binary
thinking. Management is driving the message that employees either get the
job done or they don't. Those that do can stay; those that don't must go.
This may work well for a lawn service provider with one employee, but for
an organization that employees more than one or two employees a great deal
of the value of good people management is lost. The key in establishing any
Likert scale is to have;
1. Precision of language. The language used in defining levels of
performance must be precise enough that there is no question in the
mind of the rater, the rate, or any other party that the performance
level is clearly differentiated from other levels.
2. Valuing the midpoint. The organization culture and the language at the
midpoint must clearly define the norm to be a highly valued
contributor to the organizational effort. This assumes that the
criteria for quality and quantity of behavior required have been
specifically defined for the individual being evaluated.
Recommended Rating Scale
Steve Hunt recommends a 5-point scale. He states, "The greatest advantage
of using a 5-point rating scale is that it has a midpoint and allows for
just enough differentiation without introducing scores that are too close
to be of much value. In a 5-point scale, 3 is a neutral midpoint. One score
up means better, two scores up means best."
Once the midpoint is clearly defined, we can examine the next higher
level and describe that level as a person who contributes more than what is
required of a highly valued contributor. This will be a person who
completes his/her own work then seeks out ways to help others complete
their tasks, do their tasks better, or be more effective. It will also
include those who volunteer (this is the key word) ideas and effort to
improve organizational results. Once it is clearly established that these
self-starters are valued more highly than valued contributors you will see
a shift toward more employees being evaluated at this level, with a
corresponding increase in employee engagement and productivity.
Constructing a Training Calendar
When constructing an annual training calendar, be wary of simply
asking managers what training they want delivered. Assessing training needs
this way; you will most probably get a wish list with little connection to
the real needs of the organization. When the time comes and they and their
workers are pressed for time, you may find it difficult to fill seats.
Training is expensive and there is no better method for wasting your scarce
training dollars. Why is this so? We find that many managers are not
skilled in identifying which of their problems can be solved by training
and which cannot.
For a training calendar to be effective, it needs to be tailored for
your specific organization's real needs. Ask your managers what training
they need. However, make sure you engage them in constructive dialog about
what their real problems are and which of them can realistically be
addressed through training. If the performance shortfall is a one-off
problem, such as an increasing number of customer complaints, it may be
more effective and cost efficient to address the issue on an improvement
project basis (TNA).
Training calendars are best suited to repeatable and regular demand,
such as refresher skills training for infrequently performed technical
tasks and for new recruits joining the organization. In these cases, review
what training is required on a regular basis and look at what new recruits
need to be proficient at soon after they join your organization. Generally
speaking, consult with your management team by checking off which of the
following areas require inclusion in your training calendar:
Management, leadership and supervision skills
Soft skills, such as communication and conflict resolution
Environment, health and safety
Human resource processes, such as performance management
Business skills, such as strategy, planning and process improvement

Line and staff skills such as telephone etiquette and inventory
Policy Adaptation
Our Administration understands this concept and must design and
implement these objectives into a policy for it to work. "Training policies
serve to guide an organization's training function on a day-to-day basis
and are often accompanied by procedures for fulfilling the requirements of
the policies." For policies to be effective, they must have the following
characteristics (Fire and Emergency Services Instructor, 2006):
Adopted through a process that provides critical feedback
Explicitly supported by the organization's administration and
training manager

Procedures and guidelines may either accompany policies or exist
independently from them. They are both essential management tools for a
training program. Our department has very few training policies and only
one rule under Fire Station Operations.
All station commanders (acting/filling in are included) will conduct a
minimum of one hour of training every workday. Training requirements are:
A. One hour per day
B. Two hours per month covering Haz Mat Operations
C. On topic In service Training (IFSTA) each month
D. To facilitate training, training will commence at 1000 hours in
all stations on all units. The only exceptions to this rule will
be if personnel are busy on an emergency run (Fire or Rescue),
or if another form of training is taking place with the prior
approval of the Duty Battalion Chief , Training Chief, Deputy
Chief or the Fire Chief. It should be remembered that the
training be held at some point in the day.

There has always been an emphasis on quantitative hours versus
qualitative. Some training is also based upon state and federal laws or
standards. Such statues as, the Code of Federal regulations (CFR), MIOSHA
/OSHA Standards, Public Acts and ICS/NIMS. Our department also has written
procedures for emergency scene operations and for an Incident Command
System. As we move forward in developing a comprehensive program, we must
recognize and adjust our standard operating procedures to fit a suitable
model. All DFD members need to be aware and on the same page. Our internal
environment must reflect our external environment.
Organizations must have a mission statement that describes goals and
includes training as an integral part of successful operations. Instructors
must take an active role in guiding management in planning and scheduling
appropriate and required training sessions. (FESI ) "You can use your
organizations mission and values to focus your people on doing the right
things while keeping your organization on track." (Salka, 2004) "When there
is a genuine vision (as opposed to all-to-familiar "vision statement"),
people excel and learn, not because they are told to, but because they want
to." (Senge, 1990)
The National Incident Management System has also suggested the "SMART"
model as a performance management and employee development system. The
SMART model states that the objectives and action plans should be S=
specific, M= measurable, A= action orientated, R= realistic, and T=
Principles of Learning
In the 1960s, a committee of college professors, chaired by
(Bloom, 1960), identified three types or domains of learning: cognitive
(knowledge), psychomotor (skills), and affective (attitude). These domains
are interrelated areas in which learning occurs rather than being
independent areas of learning. When targeted by instructional methods,
learning within the domains enables students to understand a concept,
perform a task, or alter a behavior. It other words these domains are used
to explain the What, How and Why of the knowledge to be acquired. (Appendix
Individuals gather information, process it, and use it in many
different ways. These ways are referred to as learning styles and learning
methods. Instructors must be flexible (and sometimes very creative) to
satisfy the learning styles and methods that are represented in a group of
students. A learning style is the consistent way a person gathers and
processes information. People constantly gather information through the
five senses. A learning method is the way an individual thinks or processes
information. Thought-processing methods develop as students apply cognitive
information to scenarios or practice situations.
The principle of intensity states that if a stimulus (experience) is
vivid and real, it will more likely change or have an effect on the
behavior (learning). For example, an instructor who demonstrates how to use
a certain rescue tool and involves students in the demonstration is
providing an experience that is more likely to be remembered than a lecture
on how to use that tool. This concept is known as the "cone of learning."
It is the information a person remembers through various passive and active
learning experiences. (Appendix B)
This law can be expanded to include the use of the rescue tool in an
actual practical training evolution that involves all aspects of a rescue
using the tool. According to a book by David Freedman Corps Business, The
30 Management Principles of the U.S. Marines, explains this concept in
Management Principle No.10, Employ Extreme Training: "Situations faced on
the job shouldn't seem more daunting than those faced in training."
Many messages stimulate the senses, and some of those messages are
important enough to work their way through the memory system to be stored.
The mind looks at the world through the five senses, and each sense gathers
a certain amount of information that is then transmitted to the brain.
Dugan Laird, an author and consultant in the training and development
field, developed the sensory-stimulation theory. This theory says simply
that for people to change, they must invest their senses in the process.
Instructors manage this process by simulating what the students see, hear,
touch, smell, and taste during a learning session. Laird states that
students "pay more attention to sensory experiences than to mental
processes or emotional involvement." (Appendix C)
In addition, John Kirkley from the Oklahoma Fire Service Training has
more tips from his Eleven Keys to Engaging Adult Students. Some that relate
to principles of learning include making it meaningful. Adults search out
(and tune into) learning experiences that have meaning for their lives.
They want to learn about topics that are pertinent and will make their
lives better. Either directly or indirectly through discussions and the
Case in point is to discuss more and lecture less. Adults need to
learn through a sharing of experiences. In a sense, the sharing of
experiences is an emotional connection with the educator. Discussion allows
students to connect new information with information and experiences
already stored in long-term memory. This is also part of the reason that
different people learn at different rates.
Transfer of learning has been defined as the degree to which trainees
apply knowledge, skills, and attitudes they gain in training to their jobs.
Transfer-of-learning research to date has focused primarily on the transfer
of skills learned during formal training (Rouiller & Goldstein, 1993).
Because skills learned informally are likely to share similar features with
transfer tasks in terms of context and content, the potential exists for
skills learned informally to be more readily transferred than skills
learned in formal training contexts. It was also found that, individuals
who reported higher levels of supervisor intervention indicated more
transfer of learning than those who reported lower levels of supervisor

Instructional Delivery Methods
Many methods for presenting information are available for instructors.
Since the early 1990's instruction, delivery has changed and evolved
through the increasing use of technology. Instructional delivery can be
described as one of the following types:
Instructor-led training (ILT) – Traditional instruction that
depends on the direct transfer of knowledge from the instructor
to the student.
Technology-based training (TBT) – Electronic learning (e-
learning) that uses methods such as Internet web based
instruction, interactive television (ITV), and other forms of
computer based electronically transferred knowledge.
Other Instructional methods - Variety of approaches to learning
include self-directed learning and individualized instruction.
Each of these methods may depend on portions of the ILT and TBT
models for the transfer of knowledge.

Instructors must select the most appropriate method based on
factors such as the audience and topic. These instructional delivery
methods are not independent of one another, and effective instructors can
incorporate more than one method into a presentation. (FESI, 2006)
Transfer of training, defined as the effective and continuing
application of newly acquired skills on the job, continues to be a critical
issue for organizations (Weissbein, 1997) A widely respected conceptual
framework for analysis of the transfer problem suggests that transfer is a
function of three factors: trainee characteristics, work environment, and
learning retention. Learning retention, in turn, is impacted by training
design and is also influenced by trainee characteristics and work
environment variables. Mills and Pace examined the effects of various
combinations of practice and feedback on cognitive recall and demonstration
of listening skills immediately after training, 2 days later, and 2 weeks
later. The combination of both practice and video feedback produced the
greatest effect on the long-term performance scores. (Mills & Pace, 1989).
While traditional instruction is still the primary form of
instruction delivery, TBT is becoming increasingly popular. Some of the
reasons for this shift include the following:
Increase in the number of nontraditional students
Increase in the use of computers (PCs)
Increase in demand for specialized courses with limited enrollment
Decrease in funding for training budgets
Improved sophistication in computer- based simulations
Improved technology-based delivery systems

The training organization or instructor who is considering the use of
a technology-based system must remember that psychomotor skills-based
topics do not lend themselves easily to this type of teaching. In addition,
the interaction that occurs between students and instructors within the
classroom setting can be lost when students strictly use TBT systems. The
limitations and desired results must be compared before a course is
converted to TBT. (FESI, 2006)
In our rapidly changing environment, computers and e learning are
evolving daily. It is said that 50% of all training in the corporate
environment is provided through compact disc and intranet programs. We as a
fire service are already using these technology-based training systems.
Some of the current methods used are computer-based training in the forms
of multimedia (PowerPoint), computer-assisted instruction such as tutorial,
simulations or games. We also use web-based training/education delivered
via the Internet or World Wide Web.
The primary goal of instruction is to provide opportunities for all
students to learn and successfully meet course goals and objectives.
Opportunities to learn can be presented through two approaches to teaching:
traditional and mastery. The traditional approach to teaching is based on
the presentation of information through lectures, readings and
audiovisuals. Mastery is defined as a high-level or nearly complete degree
of proficiency in the execution of a skill. The mastery approach to
teaching, sometimes referred to as competency-based learning (CBL),
requires that the student successfully master the learning objectives or
outcomes of the lesson or course. (FESI, 2006)
The mastery approach works very well in the fire service and
emergency services because the services are competency based. Students keep
working (learning) until they have acquired the necessary level of
competency. The goal is achieved by creating learning objectives and
delivery styles to permit this mastery to occur. "Personal mastery is the
discipline of continually clarifying and deepening our personal vision, of
focusing our energies, of developing patience, and of seeing reality
objectively. As such, it is an essential cornerstone of the learning
organization, the learning organizations spiritual foundation." (Senge,
Components of a Theory-Based Practice Protocol
What type of practice, given the constraints of training time in the
workplace, would help move the trainee into stage three of Anderson's
model, and how can this practice design be operationalized? A literature
review, which examined both historical behaviorist research on the
conditions of practice and recent research on practice in the fields of
cognitive and educational psychology, suggested the following practice
design principles:

1. Develop a criterion checklist that clearly describes the key behaviors
that make up each component skill set. Arrange the behaviors on the
checklist in order of difficulty within each component.
2. Use progressive part-task role-play practice of the component skill
sets to develop and compile procedural knowledge. Then integrate the
component skills with guided whole-task role-play practice.
3. In the whole-task practice, practice to mastery (one errorless
performance of all criteria) then continue practice to a minimum of
50% over learning.
4. Use video feedback to provide knowledge of results after each practice
5. Use reciprocal teaching techniques to scaffold learners, prompt
elaboration for memory retention, and foster use of higher level
cognitive strategies.

Typical behavior modeling designs usually employ only the first two
principles-use of a criterion checklist and part task to whole task
practice. For this study, a more robust practice protocol, termed a mastery
practice lab, was created that employed the additional principles of
mastery and over learning, use of video feedback, and reciprocal teaching
techniques. When a knowledge structure is robust, strong links between
problem types and specific solutions exist, enabling transfer of learning.
For example, Stokes, Kemper, and Kite (1997) found that pilots with more
flight experience performed better on a simulated flight test (that is, a
transfer task) than did their novice counterparts.
Instructors who understand the principles of learning will have the
foundation for developing the appropriate teaching style to meet the needs
of their students, their organizations, and themselves. This understanding
will allow them to be more flexible by matching their teaching style to the
learning style of the individual student as well as matching it to the
topic. The instructor will be able to develop not only effective teaching
styles but also methods for motivating students to excel. Finally,
acquiring this understanding allows an instructor to focus on the primary
element of all education: the student.
Another very similar teaching concept, which was developed during the
1940's, is the Job Instruction Training (JIT). This system was originally
designed to train industrial workers quickly and thoroughly for work in
plants geared up for the war effort. The JIT system recommends teaching a
task by breaking it down into its individual parts and then demonstrating
it one-step at a time. After each step has been demonstrated, provide time
for questions and further explanations before going on to the next step. In
more specific terms, an instructor first tells the employee how to do the
task once at a regular rate of speech and then more slowly, step by step.
As the instructor explains the task, you should also be physically
demonstrating the operation. An instructor could also show a video,
diagram, or picture of how the task is performed. Finally, have the
employee show you how the task is to be performed. At this point you may
have to repeat your directions and provide another example. After the
training program has been completed it is important to try to measure what
effect it has had.

Learning from Incidents
Another form of training is the formal process of learning from
experience. Nearly every fire department conducts some type of critique
process after major incidents. However, only a small percentage of
departments have in place a policy describing the process and the
"afterlife" of critiques. Yet these exercises are of little value unless
the lessons learned are documented, integrated into training, practiced,
and evaluated again. (Dennic Compton, 2002)
Post-incident evaluations (PIEs) should be governed by a written
policy. Done properly, a PIE can be a very high quality training tool that
will enhance customer service and personnel safety. Done improperly, the
sessions can be threatening, hurtful, and of little technical merit. When a
policy for PIEs is being developed, the following points (among others)
should be considered:
Participation should be broad and the input process inclusive
Adequate materials (audiovisual, written, etc.) should be
The environment and process should be non-threatening.
The time frame for each element should be defined.
A record should be made of the sessions and its conclusions.
A follow-up process for applying the lessons learned should be

According to Managing Fire and Rescue Services, probably the most
critical failure of PIEs is the failure to assimilate the lessons learned
into the department's training and operations even though doing so is,
after all the reason to conduct PIEs. Although it is essential to make sure
that lessons from incidents are integrated into the training program, it is
even more critical to ensure that they become part of policy and that the
policy is carried out by all concerned.
The incident scene is the most realistic training that any
organization can experience. Failure to scrutinize operations at the scene
carefully and positively is indeed a training opportunity missed. The After
Action Review (AAR) is a post-shift team discussion that incorporates and
integrates both technical information and human factors. Mission Solutions
Incorporated has listed the following characteristics:

Is the primary tool for incorporating the action's or day's
events into the learning cycle.
Provides a forum for determining the roots of crew performance
successes and failures.
In the event of failure, it provides a forum for developing
strategies and for mitigating causal factors in the future.
Assists in establishing a common crew perception of the events
of the day.
Provides practice for crew communication and for conflict
resolution between team members.
Provides a place to establish, emphasize, and reinforce group

Records Management
According to Fire and Emergency Service Instructor, IFSTA, records
management includes the planning, controlling, directing, organizing, and
conducting of other managerial activities required for maintaining an
organization's records. It also involves the creation, maintenance, use and
disposition of the organizations records. A successful records-management
program results in the proper documentation of the policies and
transactions of the organization and effective and economical management of
its operations.
The effective and efficient management of training records is essential
to a successful training program. Accurate records provide an organization
with a long term inventory of its training activities as well as support in
legal proceedings and management reviews by outside agencies such as the
Insurance Services Office (ISO).In addition to the elements of inventories,
legal records, and management reviews, the benefits of keeping accurate
training records also include the following:
Training documents may be reviewed by appropriate or authorized
parties when necessary.
Records identify training areas that are emphasized as well as
areas that require more attention.
Records provide documentation of required training completion.
Information in records can be used for planning training
programs and scheduling training.
Records can be used in defense of legal challenges in cases of
accidents, fatalities, or injuries.
Environmental Protection Agency – exposure to hazardous
OSHA- respiratory protection training programs.
The organization must create and preserve adequate and proper
documentation of its activities in a records-management system that
supports operational needs, protects individual rights, and allows
accountability. The type and format of training records may vary widely
depending upon the specific needs of the organization. NFPA 1401,
Recommended Practices for Fire Service Training Reports and Records,
provides examples of different training forms as well as other helpful
information on the design and procedures for effective management of
training records.
According to the International City/County Management Association (ICMA),
there must be some process, either within the software or in a parallel
paper-based system, to register the acknowledgement (signature) of both the
trainer and the trainee. Many court decisions have upheld the importance of
the dual acknowledgement. In addition, the records for a given trainee
should reflect more than just the simple titles of courses or sessions
taken. Many courts have also confirmed the need to list some level of
detail as to the course/session content. This could include a table of
contents or at least a reference of the title of the curriculum being used.

High-quality training records not only provide legal references in
disputes but also form the basis of a training history for every employee.
Using good records, the training officer can easily schedule timely
recertifications, required continuing education, and annual skill
evaluations. Further, by examining groups of employees, he or she can
readily discern gaps in the teaching of certain skills and knowledge.
Research Methodology
The first research methodology used will be action research. The action
research will examine and identify "best practices" in current training
programs. Once identified, these practices will be developed and
implemented into DFD training policies and procedures. These policies and
procedures will serve as the foundation for a comprehensive firefighting
training program. The objective is to help deliver high-quality service to
Dearborn citizens. Another important objective is to help ensure the safety
of our firefighters in fire and rescue operations. In achieving these
objectives, the DFD will also be maintaining an effective and efficient
organization, while using the least amount of resources. This paper will
examine literature references to define a comprehensive training program
for the DFD.
This action research will answer the following questions:
1. What useful components are required to define an effective
training process?
2. What useful elements are necessary to develop and implement a
successful training program?
3. What resources are available to help municipal fire

This research study will also use evaluative research to collect and
analyze data in order to facilitate decision-making. These evaluative
questions will be solicited to DFD members via department e-mail. The
software system used for this evaluation is This input
and feedback from our department members will be used in the planning and
needs analysis. The following questions were posed to identify needed
improvements in a future training program:
1. What specific training topics are needed for our member's
safety on and off the fire ground?
2. What standard operating guidelines are needed for our
member's safety during fire/rescue operations?
3. What high-risk/low frequency fire/rescue services require
4. What is the ideal time for our member's to perform daily
5. What are the DFD's "weaknesses" according to fire operations
and/or service delivery?
6. Do you agree that it would be advantageous to our safety,
efficiency and effectiveness in delivering services, to
create a "Fire policy and procedures committee?

The evaluation survey was answered by only twenty-two department
members out of 121. This reason is unknown. Speculation for this reason may
be that there is a lack of concern for training in general. This implies
that a cultural awareness to safe practices and a priority for training be
developed at all levels. Until such as atmosphere is created from the
administration down, "status queue" will remain. The DFD should not wait
for a LODD to make this issue a priority. The results are as follows;
Research question number 1: What specific training topics are needed for
our member's safety on and off the fire ground? 63.6% of the response was
Fire Attack Operations. This was followed by 59.1% responding to Rapid
Intervention Team (RIT). Tied for third was Firefighter Rescue Techniques
and Ventilation with 50% each. (Appendix D) Research question number 2:
What standard operating guidelines are needed for our member's safety
during fire/rescue operations? There was a tie for the number one response
as extremely important between Fire Operations and Communications with
63.2%. Second was Rapid Intervention Team (RIT) with 61.1%. An
Accountability system was not far behind with 55%. In addition, Extrication
was rated as the highest in the important category with a 68.4%. (Appendix
Research question number 3: What high-risk/low frequency fire/rescue
services require training? There were a multitude of responses to this
question. Our department in comparison to most (similar in size and
infrastructure) predominately perform 80% of services in Emergency Medical
Services. Some of the responses were concerned with basic fire operations
and fire behavior. The majority of responses were grouped together with
actions taken to save our own. These actions included Mayday operations,
Rapid Intervention Team procedures including search and rescue of civilians
and firefighters. There was also a concern for firefighter entrapment due
to a building collapse and ventilation procedures as well.
Research question number 4: What is the ideal time for our member's to
perform daily training? The highest response for this question was 1000
hours with 54.5%, followed by 1300 hours with 27.3%. Our department's
traditional time is 1000 hours, but this time varies and is rarely
conformed to. This is due to a change in minimum manning and daily grocery
shopping with Engine companies. Past practice used one member on
cook/shopping detail as opposed to three staffed on an Engine. This has
resulted in companies shopping and preparing meals for the 11:30 lunch time
as opposed to training one hour at the designated 1000 hours. (Appendix F)
Research question number 5: What are the DFD's "weaknesses" according
to fire operations and/or service delivery? This is obviously a subjective
question, but one that allows for valuable feedback, which is essential for
training programs. One of the most interesting responses was that "SOG's
were changing often and different SOG's and SOP's are found on the same
subject in different locations, without a single place to find the most
updated ones period." This individual goes on to state that "One place to
look when there is a question." This really says a lot to me in creating a
comprehensive training program. We as a department have minimum standard
operating procedures (SOP's). To make matters worse, we do not have a
standard operations playbook with benchmark practices, so as to train and
guide our members in all aspects of fire/rescue services. Along the same
lines of thought, we as a department lack a "standardization of procedures"
between Battalion Units/Stations. This all adds to some firefighters not
knowing their roles and responsibilities on the fire ground, which is
extremely dangerous.
Research question number 6: Do you agree that it would be
advantageous to our safety, efficiency and effectiveness in delivering
services, to create a "Fire policy and procedures committee? The results
were two to one with a 36.4% rating as extremely important. We as a
department realize and understand that collaboration is essential for our
membership's safety and well-being. Collectively,
we can establish interdependence for the greater good of our organization.

The action research results were tasked with answering and identifying
"best practices" in current training programs. Once identified, these
practices could be used as the foundation for DFD training policies and
procedures. Question number 1: What useful components are required to
define an effective training process? The elements of a successful training
process include five key elements. The first element is planning. "Planning
for a fire service training program should start with the recognition of
department goals and objectives." (ICMA) Once defining these goals,
specific training objectives can be created. Resources and "benchmark
practices" must also be analyzed. This planning document should be
realistic and should be available for all within the organization to
The second element is safety which is absolutely critical. Training
tasks must be rooted in safety at all levels and continually reinforced. If
safety behaviors are not continually enforced, members will invariably
compromise them. In addition, "training must be conducted safely, because
the emergency services typically operate in dangerous environments, they
must practice in similar or simulated situations." (ICMA) The enabling
document that outlines a comprehensive safety program for fire departments
is NFPA 1500 Standard on Fire department Occupational Health and Safety.
This document according to ICMA is the "blueprint" for the safety policies
and procedures of training agencies and fire departments. In some states
this document is the law.
The third element is external mandates and is the primary determinant
of training content according to ICMA. Those that are pertinent to the DFD
are hazardous materials (HAZMAT) training required by the federal
government, as well as NIMS/ICS. There is also mandated Firefighter
training required by the State of Michigan including Drivers Training,
Firefighters Right to know, Confined Space Rescue, Blood Borne Pathogen,
Power Utilities, Incident Command System and MIOSHA parts 38 and 74.
In addition to these mandates, there are several NFPA standards that
detail minimum job performance for various fire service positions. If these
requirements are not adopted, they ultimately serve as effective
guidelines. The more pertinent standards are NFPA 1001, Standard for
Firefighter, and NFPA 1002 Standard for Fire Apparatus Driver/Operator, and
NFPA 1021, Standard for Fire Officer Professional Qualifications.
When using the standards to specify job performance requirements, it
is imperative to have an evaluation and certification testing process in
place. The key is to have the organizational members tested in both the
skills and knowledge specified by the standards. Again, if we do not
measure something, then we are not managing that something.
The fourth element is "Training in context." This concept that gained
popularity in the 1980's and 1990's is simply taking the NFPA standards and
training to them based on the needs and resources of your community. Some
areas within the standards are not applicable to every fire organization or
could be afforded by the individual community. In lieu of using the
prescribed training, the organizations carefully design tactical problems
and then incorporate as many elements of the training standard into a given
drill. "The exercises are carefully conducted, available equipment is
used, and staffs simulate realistic local scenarios. Coaching is a
significant part of the activity, as are the use of sound instructional
methodology and a high level of safety consciousness. Lecture and
demonstration stress the teaching and learning objectives and are followed
by practice, for reinforcement." (ICMA)
The fifth element is the format and delivering of the training.
Researching and using the most effective way to not only educate people,
but also to measure the trainings effectiveness is also essential. A scope
of instructional methodologies is available for the Training Officer. I
have already discussed a multitude of methodologies, in the literature
review section. These include; Interactive computer self-study, hands-on
practical skills, and simulation for strategic and tactical decision
making. Planning for use of the best or most appropriate instructional
methodology will ultimately make the training program more effective and
more economical.
Question number 2: What useful elements are necessary to develop and
implement a successful training program? This again depends on the size and
needs of an organization. Training programs can be simple or complex.
Regardless, all programs require certain elements if they are to be
successful and meet applicable laws and standards. These elements begin
with the training for incoming personnel. Basic training for all
probationary or incoming personnel is a major concern and commitment.
Training programs must be designed to provide a standard level of
competence for those employees who are about to fill a given position (DFD
Firefighter I). These employees will be required to meet the skill level of
Firefighter I and II, as described in NFPA 1001. Specialized training in
policies and procedures for the given jurisdiction are also part of the
initial training. In addition, the DFD provides Advanced Life Support which
includes a multitude of Health Emergency Medical System (HEMS) protocols.
Most municipalities for career fire departments including the DFD
require pre employment certifications. Therefore it is a good idea for
employers to be in close contact with the pre employment training
community. "It is critical for the employer to be certain that the
community colleges, states or other agencies doing the training are
covering the desired topics and testing the students in a high quality and
comprehensive manner. The amount of training done by the hiring entity
(DFD) is inversely proportional to the amount of training required in
advance. However, the responsibility to field a properly trained team
remains the employer's."(ICMA)
In service training or incumbent training is the primary topic and
concern of this paper. Many organizations overlook the need to augment
regular, routine training with a well planned and well-executed program of
in-service training. In meeting this crucial element, an organization must
direct and document in-service training on a myriad of subjects. In doing
this, they will enable the department to address skills degradation,
advances in technology, expansion in services and changes in policy.
A needs analysis must be performed to ensure that all training
subjects are covered. This analysis should focus on the following training
Critical skills and knowledge that are used infrequently
High-consequence skills and procedures
Input from incident experience (Post Incident Analysis)
Continuing education required for certifications
Mandated training
Departmental goals and objectives

Providing this training to busy Fire/EMS units can be challenging.
Units may have class interrupted if they remain in service or even busy
companies may have literally no good time available in the normal work
setting. In these cases, units may have to be removed from service even to
cover the simplest of subjects. Although declaring units out of service for
training is undesirable, it is every bit as important as taking them out of
service for response to incidents or for maintenance. Declaring units out
of service for training implies that the vacated response district will be
covered to the best of the organization's ability. (ICMA)
"In service training is a planned and executed process that is ongoing
and addresses very specific needs."(ICMA) The following questions are also
crucial elements in providing and planning the above training subjects:
1. How can schedules of trainers and trainees be managed?
2. What outside resources are available?
3. What restrictions are imposed by labor contracts?

Staff development is another crucial area needed for a successful
comprehensive training program. The ever-increasing demands on the fire and
emergency response managers will continue to put a premium not only on good
leadership and basic management skills but also on sound problem solving
skills and the ability to manage multiple functions. Good staff development
programs do not rely on internal resources. Instead, they make use of
higher education offerings, state and national fire academy programs, and
training opportunities made available by the private sector. Providing a
broad scope of input will expose future leaders and managers to various
approaches and philosophies in both public and private sector settings.
Because specialty training can consume such a large percentage of a
training budget, the overall training plan should include this element in
detail. Some of the factors to be considered in planning are:
Availability and accessibility of training (e.g., are training
programs offered by our county or state)
Accessibility of specialized learning resources (e.g., can we
receive instruction via closed-circuit television?)
Frequency of required recertification
Evaluation for skills degradation
Travel and costs
Public and private sector training sources
Training with other jurisdictions
Electronic and other nontraditional delivery

Some specialized training is motivated by standards that may or may not
be adopted as law. Documents such as NFPA 472, Standard for Professional
Competence of Responders to Hazardous Materials Incidents (2002 edition),
and NFPA 1006, Standard for Rescue Technician Professional Qualifications,
will be of great assistance in determining the content of a training
In training, the most important and expensive resource is personnel. The
quality of the leadership and execution of the training functions of a fire
and emergency response agency can be the major determinant of a program's
success or failure.
Measurable job performance standards for training personnel are stated
in the provisions of NFPA 1041, Standard for Fire Service Instructor
Professional Qualifications. This document describes skills to management
of the training function. What it does not specify or measure are the
important traits of enthusiasm and a gift for instructing and mentoring.
The upper-level job performance standards described in NFPA 1041 are akin
to those met by someone with advanced training in educational methodology
and/or a college degree in education.
In most organizations, the training officer is not responsible for
delivering all the training. Indeed, NFPA 1021, Standard for Fire Officer
Professional Qualifications, specifies that each level I fire officer
should also be a Level I fire instructor. This is also verified in Fire
Emergency Services Company Officer (fourth edition) IFSTA on page 261. This
text book is a requirement for the bibliography for fire officer at DFD.
As implied, most departments will use their midlevel officers to deliver
in-service training to small work groups. This is generally accomplished
with the use of a schedule, a curriculum, and materials provided by a
designated training officer or staff. Clearly, some company-level officers
will do better as instructors than others, depending on their skills and
motivation. However, if the job requirements include providing training and
if that function is properly evaluated and reinforced, the use of line
officers as instructors typically works very well. (ICMA)
The resources available that can help a local municipality to meet their
needs in fire service training are abundant. There are State agencies such
as the Michigan State Police and the Bureau of Fire Service Training. This
state division is headed by the State of Michigan Fire Marshall. There is a
fee involved for classes and training at the state level.
There are also testing and certification agencies such as the
International Fire Service Accreditation Congress (IFSAC) and the National
Board on Fire Service Professional Qualifications. IFSAC is a peer group
function that accredits fire-related degree granting programs at colleges
and universities. The National Board is operated by several national fire
service organizations and confines itself to certification programs.
The United States has a myriad of small federal grants, programs and so
forth that fire departments could access for help in training. The primary
federal government resource for fire and emergency service training is
based in the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). FEMA is
responsible for the operation of the U.S. Fire Administration (USFA) and
its National Fire Academy (NFA) and also for the operation of the Emergency
Management Institution (EMI). NFA and EMI jointly operate an extensive
Learning Resource Center at the Emmitsburg, Maryland facility.
In addition to these state and national resources, there are several
associations that focus their attention on issues and efforts involving
fire and emergency training. These include the following:
International Society of Fire service Instructors
National Fire Protection Association
International Fire Service Training Association
International Association of Fire Fighters
International Association of Fire Chiefs
The study results compared to the finding in the evaluation
methodology give guidance to the training needs analysis. The evaluation
results were questions posed at what training topics and SOP's the DFD
needs. It is unknown whether those that contributed to the survey were in
management or simply suppression firefighters. All of there feedback is
valuable in creating a comprehensive training program. However, according
to Business Performance and Training Needs Analysis (TNA), when
constructing an annual training calendar, be wary of simply asking managers
what training they want delivered. Assessing training needs this way; you
will most probably get a wish list with little connection to the real needs
of the organization.
Further more it needs to be tailored for your specific organization's
real needs. In completing a training needs analysis, this researcher first
had to establish a baseline of where we as an organization stood. The root
of the TNA is the gap analysis. This is an assessment of the gap between
the knowledge, skills and abilities that the people in the organization
currently possess and the knowledge, skills and abilities that they require
to meet the organization's objectives.
The chief purpose of this TNA was to create a comprehensive training
program. In accomplishing this task, we as a department would become more
efficient and effective in service delivery. Even more important, is
providing the safety and well being of our members, so that every one goes
home to their loved ones. This is the true passion of this research paper.

Once the baseline is established, we need to first look at the
external mandates. The Federal and State mandates are the primary
determinant of training content according to ICMA. Following these, we next
have to perform a TNA on the critical skills and knowledge that are used
infrequently. This must include the high-consequence skills and procedures.
We then can mesh all of these into our departmental goals and objectives.
To create and implement these goals and objectives into a
comprehensive training policy it is imperative that the DFD establish
concrete Standard Operating Procedure.(SOP's) "Training policies serve to
guide an organization's training function on a day-to-day basis and are
often accompanied by procedures for fulfilling the requirements of the
policies. (IFSTA 2006)
This researcher's interpretation of the literature review and
methodology research was used again to compare where we are as an
organization (within the training division) and where we need to be. The
fire and rescue training programs in the DFD have suffered greatly with the
past administration at the helm. The direction and vision of the leaders
was non existent. There was no priority for the "hallmarks of governance"
which is the efficiency, effectiveness, responsiveness and equity.
The DFD and the City of Dearborn allowed the organization to be
without a Training Division for over two years. The mandates and required
training of the members suffered greatly. The standardization and
consistency of training was fragmented. This direction was gratefully
corrected with the new administration. There is now sound direction and
vision for our future. We are making up for lost ground and taking
advantage of missed opportunities. The department is now focused on
specific training with goals and objectives in mind.
In addition to these finding's, the performance evaluation system and
testing system are also culprits to the demise of training. The current
performance evaluation scale is poor at best. It is a "two-point" Likert
Scale. These scales arise in organizational cultures that encourage binary
thinking. "Management is driving the message that employees either get the
job done or they don't. Those that do can stay; those that don't must go.
This may work well for a lawn service provider with one employee, but for
an organization that employees more than one or two employees a great deal
of the value of good people management is lost." (HUNT)
What is needed desperately is a 5-point scale. The "best practices
performance reviews," all recommend this scale for employee engagement and
productivity. Steve Hunt recommends a 5-point scale. He states, "The
greatest advantage of using a 5-point rating scale is that it has a
midpoint and allows for just enough differentiation without introducing
scores that are too close to be of much value. In a 5-point scale, 3 is a
neutral midpoint. One score up means better, two scores up means best."
Once the midpoint is clearly defined, we can examine the next higher
level and describe that level as a person who contributes more than what is
required of a highly valued contributor. This will be a person who
completes his/her own work then seeks out ways to help others complete
their tasks, do their tasks better, or be more effective. It will also
include those who volunteer (this is the key word) ideas and effort to
improve organizational results. Once it is clearly established that these
self-starters are valued more highly than valued contributors you will see
a shift toward more employees being evaluated at this level, with a
corresponding increase in employee engagement and productivity.
The employee's completed Performance Development Plan should document
the area that requires improvement, the actual development activity,
resource requirements, expected outcomes and an agreed time frame in which
the development outcome will be achieved. This should begin with changing
the format and style of the rating scale currently used. Human Resources
should also assist the administration in developing such activities.
Furthermore the DFD Officers have no training on how to give an
effective performance review. No one seems to want to be the "bad guy" so
to say. This is a difficult task and one that needs review and direction.
The overall success in performance, service delivery, customer service and
training depend on a sound evaluation.
After reviewing the literature review and research methodologies, this
researcher recommends a systematic approach to creating a comprehensive
training program for the DFD. The following recommendations should be
adopted to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of fire and emergency
medical services. The training program for a modern fire department should
be comprehensive enough to meet the needs of the organization.
The research indicates that a comprehensive program would begin training
to specific NFPA standards for each rank/position within the organization.
This would include NFPA 1001 (Firefighter), NFPA 1002 (Fire Apparatus
driver/Operator), and NFPA 1021 (Fire Officer). Next it is recommended that
collectively as an organization we focus our training within NFPA 1410,
Standard on Training for Initial Emergency Scene Operations and NFPA 1710,
Standard for the Organization and Deployment of Fire Suppression
Operations, Emergency Medical Operations, and Special Operations to the
Public by Career Fire Departments. All of these again, would follow NFPA
1500, Standard on Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health. By
complying with those specific NFPA standards, the OSHA standards will be
satisfied as well.
The training program development should be modular in design and
incorporate the training topics and objectives based upon federal, state,
and local requirements. The Domains of Learning by Dr. Benjamin Bloom will
all be used for the interrelation of learning. These again include the
cognitive (knowledge), psychomotor (skills), and affective (attitude). In
simplification, it is the what, how and why of the learning process.
In addition, the Bureau of Fire Service and Michigan regulations on
firefighting require that each Fire Department shall establish written
procedures for emergency scene operations and for Incident Command System,
which shall apply to all employees who are involved in Emergency
Operations. Each department should prepare and maintain a program that
specifies the type, amount and frequency of training to be provided to fire
department members. They will maintain training records for each member
indicating dates, subjects covered, training outline and satisfactory
completion by each member. All of these conditions include and comply with
MIOSHA part 74.
With the information and outline in Appendix G, the DFD can successfully
develop this comprehensive training program, which will cover every rank of
the incumbent firefighter through probationary firefighter. This is an
action plan for a comprehensive training program. It can be established as
a twelve month training calendar, which can be cyclical in nature from year
to year. This document can also be adjusted as needed, so as to meet the
changing dynamics of the fire service. In actuality this document becomes a
"living document." The document reflects not only the needs of the
community, but also the abilities of the organization to provide these
services in difficult economic times. Management of personnel and resources
becomes critical in focusing on the goals and objectives of the training
program. A total commitment and mind set is required by all members of an
organization, to successfully institute a comprehensive training program.


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Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C

Appendix D

1. What specific training topics are needed for our member's safety on and
off the fire ground?

Appendix E

2. What standard operating procedures are needed for our member's safety
during fire/rescue operations?

Appendix F

4. What is the ideal time for our members to perform daily training?

Appendix G

1. Lecture on specific required training topics and job performance
requirements (JPR's)
A. Provides new material by telling, talking, or explaining
B. Efficient way to send information to the receiver
C. Speaker can reach members in any size group
D. Format can be very cost effective
2. Video demonstrations of topic or task required
A. Sometimes called lecture but is really illustrated lecture
B. Showing method that uses both the senses of sight and hearing
C. Instructor uses drawings, pictures, slides and videos
D. Capitalize
3. Demonstration by Officer
A. Act of showing how to do something
B. Basic means for showing how to do something
C. Officer demonstrates a task while explaining how and why it is
D. Communicates both sight and hearing senses
E. When participants practice skill, they add the sense of touch to
their learning experience
F. Advantages
1) Participants can receive feedback immediately
2) Instructors can readily observe a change in behavior
3) Learners have a higher level of interest when
4) Instructors can determine what objectives have been met
5) Carefully supervised skills that participants learn
correctly in a safe environment give them the confidence to
operate on the job
4. Short quiz to capture the "cognitive" (knowledge) aspect of training
5. Practical skill evaluations / evolutions using skill sheets from IFSTA
and Essentials manuals.
A. Evaluations/evolutions directed at Job performance requirements
B. Conduct a skills evaluation to determine any potential
deficiencies in performing basic skills
C. The results of the evaluation can be used as the basis for
future training
D. Such an evaluation should be taken seriously
E. Evaluation should not be used to embarrass anyone who has
difficulty performing any skill
6. Quarterly evaluation scenario
A. Based on the 22 fire ground/fire fighting skills required by
B. NFPA 1410, Standard on Training for Initial Emergency Scene
C. NFPA 1710, Standard for the Organization and Deployment of Fire
Suppression Operations
D. Vacant structure used
E. Safety Officer present at all training
7. Post Incident Analysis performed after all required incidents (SOP
A. Used to learn, teach, and identify training needs
B. Informal, begins at scene, continues back at station
C. Share thoughts, feelings, perceptions, ideas, discovery session
D. Formal PIA, on standard form, completed by all DFD Incident
Command positions
8. Capture training records
A. Documented using FireHouse system
B. Signatures by Course Instructor, Commanding officer, and all
C. Training topic description
D. Electronic signature and or hard copy roster


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