Introduction These maps (rectilinear projection) are from the PALEOMAP PaleoAtlas for ArcGIS (Scotese, 2013a-f). This is a digital atlas of plate tectonic, paleogeographic, and paleoclimatic reconstructions designed for use with the GIS software, ArcMap (ESRI). Table 1 lists the various types of maps that comprise the PALEOMAP PaleoAtlas. The maps included in this folio are highlighted in bold text (Table 1). The last map in each folio is a rectilinear graticule that can be overlain on the maps to provide a geographic reference frame. A rectilinear projection was used because it can be easily georeferenced in ArcMap and transformed into a variety of other map projections. The rectilinear map projection can also be directly “wrapped” onto a spherical projection, like the oneused by Google Earth. A set of Google Earth paleoglobes has made from the maps in this folio. These Google Earth paleoglobes can be downloaded at: www.globalgeology.com. If the map you need is missing, or if there doesn’t seem to be a map folio for the exact time interval of interest, please contact me ([email protected]
). Table 2 lists all the time intervals that comprise the PALEOMAP PaleoAtlas for ArcGIS. The PaleoAtlas contains one map for every stage in the Phanerozoic, as well as 6 maps for the late Precambrian. Eventually, Map Folios, like this one, will be published for every time interval in the PALEOMAP PaleoAtlas. The following section is a brief description of the maps that makeup the Map Folio. Plate Tectonic Reconstruction (Map N) The plate tectonic reconstruction (Map N) is based on the global plate tectonic model developed by the PALEOMAP Project. The Atlas of Plate Tectonic Reconstructions illustrates the plate tectonic development of the Earth during the last 540 million years (Table 1). The plate tectonic reconstruction illustrates the location of active plate boundaries and the changing extent of both oceanic and continental plates. Color-coded tectonic features include: mid ocean ridges (double red lines), continental rifts (dashed red lines), subduction zones (blue lines), continental volcanic arcs (light blue lines), collision zones (purple lines), ancient collision zones (dashed purple lines), and strike-slip faults (green lines). The Paleozoic plate tectonic reconstructions are modified from Scotese and McKerrow, 1990; Scotese, 1990; Scotese,2001; and Scotese and Dammrose, 2008. The Mesozoic and Cenozoic plate tectonic reconstructions are modified from Scotese and Sager, 1988; Scotese, 1990; Scotese,2001; and Scotese and Dammrose, 2008. For an in-depth discussion of the data, methods, and rational
used to produce the plate tectonic reconstructions see, “The Atlas of Plate Tectonic Reconstructions”, (Scotese, 2014a).
Paleogeographic Maps (Maps A, B, C, D, & E) Once the global plate tectonic framework has been established, paleogeographic maps can be digitally created that represent the ancient distribution of highlands, lowlands, shallow seas, and deep ocean basins. This is done by modeling the changes in topography and bathymetry caused by tectonic and erosional processes that have occurred over time. To produce a paleogeographic map of an ancient time, young tectonic features, such as recent uplifts or volcanic eruptions, must be removed or reduced in size, whereas older tectonic features, such as ancient mountain ranges, must be restored to their former extent. As an example, ocean floor which subsides as it cools and moves away from a spreading ridge must be "unsubsided" or restored to its former depths (Stein and Stein, 1992). The paleogeographic maps in this map folio (Maps A ,B, C, D, & E) use digital paleotopographic and paleobathymetric information to represent the surface of the Earth and the shape and depth of the ocean basins. Each map is composed of over 6 million grid cells that capture digital elevation information at a 10 km x 10 km geographic resolution and 40 meter vertical resolution. This quantitative, paleo- digital elevation model, or paleoDEM, allows us to visualize and analyze the changing surface of the Earth through time using standard GIS tsoftware(ESRI 3D Analyst, Spatial Analyst), 3D modeling, and computer animation techniques. The process of building a paleoDEM (Scotese, 2002) begins with digital topographic and bathymetric data sets of the modern world (land & oceans, (Smith and Sandwell, 1997); Antarctica, the BEDMAP Project (Lythe and Vaughan, 2000); and the Arctic, (Jakobsson et al., 2004). These topographic and bathymetric data sets have been combined into a global data set with 6-minute resolution. In the next step, the individual grid cells (latitude, longitude) have been rotated back to their paleopositions using the global plate tectonic model of the PALEOMAP Project. The resulting map is a reconstruction of present-day bathymetry and topography in a paleolatitudal and paleolongitudal framework – not very interesting or informative, but a starting point. In the next processing steps (Scotese, 2002), the modern digital elevation and bathymetric values are corrected to take into account the complex effects of thermal subsidence of the ocean floor (Stein and Stein, 1992), glacial rebound (Peltier, 2004), tectonic and volcanic activity, and erosion. The result is a “revised” global paleotopographic and paleobathymetric surface, or paleoDEM for a specific geological time interval. The paleoDEM represents the “best guess” bathymetric and topographic surface for that time interval. To complete
the 3D paleogeographic model the new topographic surface is digitally “flooded” by raising or lowering sea level according to the estimates from various eustatic sea level curves (Haq et al., 1987; Haq and Schutter, 2009; Ross and Ross, 1985; Miller et al., 2005). We have found that eustatic sealevel changes that are about 50% of the values published by Haq et al. (1987), produce the best match between predicted continental flooding and the geological evidence of ancient shallow seas. On Map A, each digital elevation interval from -10,000 meters below sea level to +10,000 meters above sea level has been given a unique color. Deep oceans (oceanic crust) are dark blue. Mid-ocean ridges are medium blue. The shallow shelves and the flooded portions of the continents (epieric seas) are shades of light blue. Coastal regions and continental areas near sea level are dark green; low-lying inland areas are green. Plateaus and the foothills of mountains are tan, and mountainous regions are brown. The highest peaks in the mountains are shaded white. On Map B, the environmental categories have been reduced to 12 intervals based on elevation. White = mountain tops > 6000m; brown = mountains, 6000m - 1500m; tan = highlands, 1500m - 1000m; light brown = low plateaus and foothills, 1000m - 800m; yellow green = flatlands, 800m – 200m; green = lowlands, 200m – 0m; sky blue = near shore & shallow shelves, 0 to -40 m; light blue = shallow seas, -40m to -120m depth; and royal blue = deep shelf, 120m to -200m; blue = slope and rise, -200m to -1200m; medium blue = bathyal and mid ocean ridges, -1200m to -2600; dark blue = deep ocean, -2600 to 4400m; ocean trenchs = darkest blue, -4400m to -10,000m. On Map D, all color has been removed and the paleotopography and paleobathymetry is represented by shaded relief (western light source). The flat areas of the ocean basins are regions where the ocean floor that has been subducted, hence there is no modern bathymetry to reconstruct. On Map E, a modern geological map of the world has been draped on the continents (see Table 1 for Legend). Two versions for the paleoDEMS are available as supplementary material. A low-resolution paleoDEM with a grid cell size of 111 km x 111 km (one square degree), suitable for climate simulations, and regional version with a resolution of 10 km x 10 km, suitable for geomorphological analysis.
Paleoclimatic Maps (F, G, H, I, & J) and Paleoceanographic Maps (K, L, &M) Once the ancient paleogeography is recreated, it is then possible to begin to model other global features such paleoclimatic zones, paleoceanographic circulation patterns, or changing biogeographic pathways. The paleoclimatic reconstructions (Maps F, G, H, I & J) are based on the paleoclimate simulations
that were done as part of the GANDOLPH Project (Scotese et al. 2007, 2008, 2009, 2011). The goal of the GANDOLPH Project was to predict the occurrence of source rocks in a frontier areas using a multidisciplinary, Earth Systems approach that combined insights from plate tectonics, paleogeography, paleoclimatology, paleoceanography and source rock geochemistry (Scotese et al., 2006). 18 paleoclimate simulations were run for key geological time intervals (Figure 1) using the Fast Ocean and Atmosphere Modeling program (FOAM, Jacob et al., 2001; Moore and Scotese, 2010).
Figure 1. Time Intervals for which FOAM Paleoclimatic Simulations were Run.
The five paleoclimatic reconstructions summarize the results of each FOAM simulation. The paleoclimatic summary maps are: 1) Temperature (Map G), 2) Atmospheric Pressure and Surface Winds (Map J), 3) Rainfall and Surface Runoff (Map H), 4) Ocean Salinity and Surface Currents, 5) Zones of Upwelling (Map M). Three additional paleoclimatic reconstructions were produced that supplement the FOAM model runs. A map showing regions of marine restriction, a proxy for anoxia, (Map L) was constructed by calculating the average distance from each ocean cell to the nearest land cell. The shorter the average distance, the higher the degree of marine restriction. Taken together, Map L (Anoxia) and Map M (Upwelling) are powerful tools to predict both the occurrence and preservation of marine source rocks (Scotese et al., 2006). The two remaining paleoclimatic reconstructions (Map F & Map I) use geological data to map out the extent of the principal, ancient climate zones. One must always keep in mind that computer simulations of climate, however sophisticated, are only models. The results of the paleoclimate simulations must be tested by geological data, which is the final arbiter of global climate change. In order to test the results of the FOAM simulations, a comprehensive dataset of lithologic indicators of climate was compiled (Boucotet a., 2013). Map F plots the geographic distribution of these lithologic indicators of climate (e.g. coals, evaporites, tillites, calcretes, glendonites, etc.) and uses this data to define the ancient extent of the Tropical Everwet Belt, the Arid Subtropics, the Warm & Cool Temperate Belts, and the Polar Ice Caps. For a compilation of all the paleoclimatic reconstructions based on lithologic indicators of climate see Scotese et al. (2014). These paleoclimatic maps , in a slightly different format, have also been published in Boucot et al. (2013). The original datasets of lithologic data points are also available in Excel spreadsheet format (see supplementary materials). The final paleoclimatic reconstruction (Map I) is an artistic rendering of the same climatic zones shown in Map F. The dark green areas represent tropical rainforests, the tan-colored areas are deserts, the green areas are Warm Temperate Forests, and olive green areas are Boreal (Cool Temperate) forests, tundra’s are colored brown, and snow and polar ice caps are white. A set of seven atlases has been compiled for each of the principal climatic variables: Temperature (Scotese and Moore, 2014a), Atmospheric Pressure and Winds (Scotese and Moore, 2014b), Rainfall and Runoff (Scotese and Moore, 2014c), Ocean Currents and Salinity (Scotese & Moore, 2014d), Upwelling (Scotese and Moore, 2014e), Anoxia (Scotese, 2014b), and Lithologic Indicators
of Climate (Scotese, Boucot and Xu, 2014). These atlases show the FOAM simulation results for all 18 time intervals (Figure 1).
(More discussion about the maps in this folio in the near future.)
This map folio should be referenced as: Scotese, C.R., 2013. Map Folio 43, Triassic/Jurassic Boundary (199.6 Ma), PALEOMAP PaleoAtlas for ArcGIS, volume 3, Triassic and Jurassic Paleogeographic, Paleoclimatic and Plate Tectonic Reconstructions, PALEOMAP Project, Evanston, IL.
References Cited Boucot, A.J., Chen Xu, and Scotese, C.R, 2013. Phanerozoic Paleoclimate: An Atlas of Lithologic Indicators of Climate, SEPM Concepts in Sedimentology and Paleontology, (Print-on-Demand Version), No. 11, 478 pp., ISBN 978-1-56576-289-3, October 2013, Society for Sedimentary Geology, Tulsa, OK. Haq, B. U., Hardenbol, J., and Vail, P.R., 1987. Chronology of Fluctuating Sea Levels Since the Triassic, Science, v. 235, pp. 1156-1167. Haq, B.U., and Schutter, S. R., 2009. A Chronology of Paleozoic Sea-Level Changes, Science, v. 322, pp. 64-68. Jacob, R., Schafer, C., Foster, I., Tobis, M., and Anderson, 2001. Computational Design and Performance of the Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model (FOAM), v1., Climate and Global Change, Series No. ANL, CGC-005-0401, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL. Jakobsson, M., Macnab, R., Cherkis, N., and Schenke, H-W, 2004. The International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO), Research Publication RP-2, National Geophysical Data Center, Boulder, CO. Lythe, M.B., Vaughan, D.G., and the BEDMAP Consortium, 2000. BEDMAP: Bed Topography of the Antarctic, Misc. 9, scale 1:10,000,000, British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, U.K. Miller, K.G., Kominz, M.A., Browning, J.V., Wright, J.D., Mountain, G.S., Katz, M.E., Sugarman, P.J., Cramer, B.S., Christie-Blick, N., and Pekar, S.F., 2005. The Phanerozoic Record of Global Sea-Level Change, Science, v. 310, pp. 1293-1298. Moore, T.L., and C.R. Scotese, 2010. The Paleoclimate Atlas (ArcGIS), Geological Society of America, 2010 annual meeting, abstracts with programs, 42:598. Peltier, W.R., 2004. Global Glacial Isostasy and the Surface of the Ice-Age Earth: The ICE-5G (VM2) Model and GRACE, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, v. 32, pp. 111-149. Ross, C.A., and Ross, J.R.P., 1985. Late Paleozoic depositional Sequences are synchronous and worldwide, Geology, (March), v. 13, pp. 194-197. Scotese, C.R. and Sager, W.W., 1988. 8th Geodynamics Symposium, Mesozoic and Cenozoic Plate Reconstructions, Tectonophysics, v. 155, issues 1-4, pp. 1-399
Scotese, C.R., 1990. Atlas of Phanerozoic Plate Tectonic Reconstructions, PALEOMAP Progress 01-1090a, Department of Geology, University of Texas at Arlington, Texas, 57 pp (also UTIG Technical Report 139). Scotese, C.R., Phanerozoic plate tectonic reconstructions Atlas Scotese, C.R., 1990. Atlas of Phanerozoic Plate Tectonic Reconstructions, PALEOMAP Progress 01-1090a, Department of Geology, University of Texas at Arlington, Texas, 57 pp. Scotese, C.R. and McKerrow, W.S., 1990. Revised world maps and introduction, in Paleozoic Paleogeography and Biogeography, W.S. McKerrow and C.R. Scotese (editors), Geological Society of London, Memoir 12, pp. 1-21. Scotese, C.R., 2001. Animation of Plate Motions and Global Plate boundary Evolution since the Late Precambrian, Geological Society of America 2001 Annual Meeting, Boston, (November 2–6), Abstracts with Programs, v. 33, issue 6, p.85. Scotese, C.R., 2002. 3D paleogeographic and plate tectonic reconstructions: The PALEOMAP Project is back in town, presented at Houston Geological Society International Exploration Dinner Meeting, Houston, TX, May 20, 2002, The Bulletin of the Houston Geological Society, v. 44, issue 9, p. 13-15. Scotese, C.R., Moore, T., Illich, H., and Zumberge, J., 2006. SourceRocker: A Heuristic Computer Program that Predicts the Occurrence of Source Rocks Using Information from Paleogeography and Paleoclimate Models, AAPG 2006 Annual Convention and Exposition, April 9-12, Houston, Texas, Abstracts: Annual Meeting - American Association of Petroleum Geologists v. 15, p. 97. Scotese, C.R., Illich, H., Zumberge, J, and Brown, S., and Moore, T., 2007. The GANDOLPH Project: Year One Report: Paleogeographic and Paleoclimatic Controls on Hydrocarbon Source Rock Deposition, A Report on the Methods Employed, the Results of the Paleoclimate Simulations (FOAM), and Oils/Source Rock Compilation, Conclusions at the End of Year One: Cenomanian/Turonian (93.5 Ma), Kimmeridgian/Tithonian (151 Ma), Sakmarian/Artinskian (284 Ma), Frasnian/Famennian (375 Ma), February, 2007. GeoMark Research Ltd, Houston, Texas, 142 pp. Scotese, C.R., 2008a, The PALEOMAP Project PaleoAtlas for ArcGIS, version 1, Volume 1, Cenozoic Paleogeographic, Paleoclimatic and Plate Tectonic
Reconstructions, PALEOMAP Project, Arlington, Texas. Scotese, C.R., 2008b, The PALEOMAP Project PaleoAtlas for ArcGIS, version 1, Volume 2, Cretaceous Paleogeographic, Paleoclimatic, and Plate Tectonic Reconstructions, PALEOMAP Project, Arlington, Texas. Scotese, C.R., 2008c, The PALEOMAP Project PaleoAtlas for ArcGIS, version 1, Volume 3, Triassic and Jurassic Paleogeographic, Paleoclimatic, and Plate Tectonic Reconstructions, PALEOMAP Project, Arlington, Texas. Scotese, C.R., 2008d, The PALEOMAP Project PaleoAtlas for ArcGIS, v.1, Volume 4, Late Paleozoic Paleogeographic, Paleoclimatic, and Plate Tectonic Reconstructions, PALEOMAP Project, Arlington, Texas. Scotese, C.R., 2008e, The PALEOMAP Project PaleoAtlas for ArcGIS, v.1, Volume 5, Early Paleozoic Paleogeographic, Paleoclimatic, and Plate Tectonic Reconstructions, PALEOMAP Project, Arlington, Texas. Scotese, C.R., 2008f, The PALEOMAP Project PaleoAtlas for ArcGIS, v.1, Volume 6, Late Precambrian Paleogeographic, Paleoclimatic, and Plate Tectonic Reconstructions, PALEOMAP Project, Arlington, Texas. Scotese, C.R., Dammrose, R., 2008. Plate Boundary Evolution and Mantle Plume Eruptions during the last Billion Years, Geological Society of America 2008 Annual Meeting, October 5-9, 2008, Houston, Texas, Abstracts with Programs, v. 40, issue 6, Abstract 233-3, p. 328. Scotese, C.R., Illich, H., Zumberge, J, and Brown, S., and Moore, T., 2008. The GANDOLPH Project: Year Two Report: Paleogeographic and Paleoclimatic Controls on Hydrocarbon Source Rock Deposition, A Report on the Methods Employed, the Results of the Paleoclimate Simulations (FOAM), and Oils/Source Rock Compilation, Conclusions at the End of Year Two: Miocene (10Ma), Aptian/Albian (120 Ma), Berriasian/Barremian (140 Ma), Late Triassic (220 Ma), and Early Silurian (430 Ma), July, 2008. GeoMark Research Ltd, Houston, Texas, 177 pp. Scotese, C.R., Illich, H., Zumberge, J, and Brown, S., and Moore, T., 2009. The GANDOLPH Project: Year Three Report: Paleogeographic and Paleoclimatic Controls on Hydrocarbon Source Rock Deposition, A report on the Results of the Paleogeographic, Paleoclimatic Simulations (FOAM), and Oils/Source Rock Compilation, Conclusions at the End of Year Three: Eocene (45Ma), Early/Middle Jurassic (180 Ma), Mississippian (340 Ma), Neoproterozoic (600 Ma), August 2009. GeoMark Research Ltd, Houston, Texas, 154 pp.
Scotese, C.R., Illich, H., Zumberge, J, and Brown, S., and Moore, T., 2011. The GANDOLPH Project: Year Four Report: Paleogeographic and Paleoclimatic Controls on Hydrocarbon Source Rock Deposition, A report on the Results of the Paleogeographic, Paleoclimatic Simulations (FOAM), and Oils/Source Rock Compilation, Conclusions at the End of Year Four: Oligocene (30 Ma), Cretaceous/Tertiary (70 Ma), Permian/Triassic (250 Ma), Silurian/Devonian (400 Ma), Cambrian/Ordovician (480 Ma), April, 2011. GeoMark Research Ltd, Houston, Texas, 219 pp. Scotese, C.R., 2014a. Atlas of Plate Tectonic Reconstructions (Mollweide Projection), Volumes 1-6, PALEOMAP Project PaleoAtlas for ArcGIS, PALEOMAP Project, Evanston, IL. Scotese, C.R, 2014b. Atlas of Phanerozoic Oceanic Anoxia (Mollweide Projection), Volumes 1-6, PALEOMAP Project PaleoAtlas for ArcGIS, PALEOMAP Project, Evanston, IL. Scotese, C.R., and Moore, T.L., 2014a. Atlas of Phanerozoic Temperatures (Mollweide Projection), Volumes 1-6, PALEOMAP Project PaleoAtlas for ArcGIS, PALEOMAP Project, Evanston, IL. Scotese, C.R., and Moore, T.L., 2014b. Atlas of Phanerozoic Winds and Atmospheric Pressure (Mollweide Projection), Volumes 1-6, PALEOMAP Project PaleoAtlas for ArcGIS, PALEOMAP Project, Evanston, IL. Scotese, C.R., and Moore, T.L., 2014c. Atlas of Phanerozoic Rainfall (Mollweide Projection), Volumes 1-6, PALEOMAP Project PaleoAtlas for ArcGIS, PALEOMAP Project, Evanston, IL. Scotese, C.R., and Moore, T.L., 2014d. Atlas of Phanerozoic Ocean Currents and Salinity (Mollweide Projection), Volumes 1-6, PALEOMAP Project PaleoAtlas for ArcGIS, PALEOMAP Project, Evanston, IL. Scotese, C.R., and Moore, T.L., 2014e. Atlas of Phanerozoic Upwelling Zones (Mollweide Projection), Volumes 1-6, PALEOMAP Project PaleoAtlas for ArcGIS, PALEOMAP Project, Evanston, IL. Scotese, C.R., Boucot, A.J, and Chen Xu, 2014. Atlas of Phanerozoic Climatic Zones (Mollweide Projection), Volumes 1-6, PALEOMAP Project PaleoAtlas for ArcGIS, PALEOMAP Project, Evanston, IL. Smith, W.H.F., and Sandwell, D.T., 1997. Global Sea Floor Topography from Satellite Altimetry and Ship Depth Soundings, Science, v. 277, pp. 19561962.
Stein, C.A. and Stein, S. 1992. A model for the global variation in oceanic depth and heat flow with lithospheric age, Nature, v. 359, p. 123-129.
Table 1. Contents of Map Folio A. Paleogeography (3D shaded relief of mountains, land, shallow sea, and deep oceans) with coastlines and political boundaries, B. Simplified Paleogeography (white = mountain tops > 6000m, brown = mountains, 6000m - 1500m; tan = highlands, 1500m - 1000m; light brown = low plateaus and foothills, 1000m 800m; yellow green = flatlands, 800m – 200m; green = lowlands, 200m – 0m; sky blue = near shore & shallow shelves, 0 to -40 m; light blue = shallow seas, -40m to -120m depth; and royal blue = deep shelf, -120m to -200m depth; blue = slope and rise, -200m to -1200m, medium blue = bathyal and mid ocean ridges, -1200m to -2600, dark blue = deep ocean, -2600 to -4400m, ; ocean trenchs = darkest blue, 4400m to -1000m. C. Just Coastlines & Political Boundaries, D. 3D shaded relief, flat areas in the ocean basins represent subducted ocean floor, E. World Geology (Pink – Archean, Gray = Proterozoic, Blue = Paleozoic, Green = Mesozoic, Yellow = Cenozoic), black dots are ODP/DSDP drilling sites F. Paleoclimatic Zones & Lithologic Indicators of Climate (green dots=coal, yellow-triangles=evaporite, red triangles=calcrete, blue squares=kaolinite, blue dots=bauxite, blue asterisks – reefs, & black crosses=tillites), G. Temperature (Summer Northern Hemisphere, Cº) H. Rainfall (light blue Squares = Precipitation, Green areas = Wet areas where precipitation > evaporation, Tan areas = Deserts) I. Paleoclimatic Reconstruction (dark green = equatorial everwet, tan = arid, green = warm temperate, olive green = cool temperate, white = ice, polar) J. Atmospheric Pressure & Surface (blue = low pressure, red = high Pressure, red arrows = surface winds) K. Ocean Salinity & Surface Currents (red = normal/high salinity, blue – low salinity/brackish, blue arrows = winter surface ocean currents) L. Areas of Anoxia (blue = normal, red = anoxic, red arrows = summer surface ocean currents) M. Zones of Upwelling, (blue regions = upwelling, blue circles = intensity of upwelling, pale yellow regions = downwelling)
N. Age of Ocean Floor & Active Plate Boundaries, (red = continental rifts, red double-dashes = mid-ocean rifts, blue = subduction, light blue = continental volcanic arc, green = strike-slip, purple = collision zones, dashed purple = old collision zones, darker shade = continental crust, lighter shade = oceanic crust O. Rectilinear Graticule Overlay.
Table 2. Paleogeographic Maps: Time Intervals in the PALEOMAP PaleoAtlas
1 Present-day (Holocene, 0 Ma) 2 Last Glacial Maximum (Pleistocene, 21 ky) 3 Pliocene (Zanclean&Piacenzian, 3.7 Ma) 4 latest Miocene (Messinian, 6.3 Ma) 5 Middle/Late Miocene (Serravallian&Tortonian, 10.5 Ma) 6 Middle Miocene (Langhian, 14.9 Ma) 7 Early Miocene (Aquitanian&Burdigalian, 19.5 Ma) 8 Late Oligocene (Chattian, 25.7 Ma) 9 Early Oligocene (Rupelian, 31.1 Ma) 10 Late Eocene (Priabonian, 35.6 Ma) 11 late Middle Eocene (Bartonian, 38.8 Ma) 12 early Middle Eocene (middle Lutetian, 44.6 Ma) 13 Early Eocene (Ypresian, 52.2 Ma) Paleocene/Eocene Boundary (Thanetian/Ypresian Boundary, 55.8 Ma) 14 PETM 15 Paleocene (Danian&Thanetian, 60.6 Ma) 16 KT Boundary (latest Maastrichtian, 65.5 Ma) 17 Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian, 68 Ma) 18 Late Cretaceous (Late Campanian, 73.8 Ma) 19 Late Cretaceous (Early Campanian, 80.3 Ma) 20 Late Cretaceous (Santonian&Coniacian, 86 Ma) 21 Mid-Cretaceous (Turonian , 91.1 Ma)
22 Mid-Cretaceous (Cenomanian, 96.6 Ma) 23 Early Cretaceous (late Albian, 101.8 Ma) 24 Early Cretaceous (middle Albian, 106 Ma) 25 Early Cretaceous (early Albian, 110 Ma) 26 Early Cretaceous (late Aptian, 115.2 Ma) 27 Early Cretaceous (early Aptian, 121.8 Ma) 28 Early Cretaceous (Barremian, 127.5 Ma) 29 Early Cretaceous (Hauterivian, 132 Ma) 30 Early Cretaceous (Valanginian, 137 Ma) 31 Early Cretaceous (Berriasian, 143 Ma) 32 Jurassic/Cretaceous Boundary (145.5 Ma) 33 Late Jurassic (Tithonian, 148.2 Ma) 34 Late Jurassic (Kimmeridgian, 153.2 Ma) 35 Late Jurassic (Oxfordian, 158.4 Ma) 36 Middle Jurassic (Callovian, 164.5 Ma) 37 Middle Jurassic (Bajocian&Bathonian, 169.7) 38 Middle Jurassic (Aalenian, 173.6 Ma) 39 Early Jurassic (Toarcian, 179.3 Ma) 40 ”Early Jurassic (Pliensbachian, 186.3 Ma) 41 Early Jurassic (Sinemurian/Pliensbachian, 189.6 Ma) 42 Early Jurassic (Hettangian&Sinemurian, 194.6 Ma) 43 Triassic/Jurassic Boundary (199.6 Ma) 44 Late Triassic (Norian, 210 Ma) 45 Late Triassic (Carnian, 222.6 Ma) 46 Middle Triassic (Ladinian, 232.9 Ma) 47 Middle Triassic (Anisian, 241.5 Ma) 48 Early Triassic (Induan&Olenekian, 248.5 Ma)
49 ”Permo-Triassic Boundary (251 Ma)” 50 Late Permian (Lopingian, 255.7 Ma) 51 late Middle Permian (Capitanian, 263.1 Ma) 52 Middle Permian (Roadian&Wordian, 268.2 Ma) 53 Early Permian (Kungurian, 273.1 Ma) 54 Early Permian (Artinskian, 280 Ma) 55 Early Permian (Sakmarian, 289.5 Ma) 56 Early Permian (Asselian, 296.8 Ma) 57 Late Pennsylvanian (Gzhelian, 301.2 Ma) 58 Late Pennsylvanian (Kasimovian, 305.3 Ma) 59 Middle Pennsylvanian (Moscovian, 309.5 Ma) 60 Early Pennsylvanian (Bashkirian, 314.9 Ma) 61 Late Mississippian (Serpukhovian, 323.2 Ma) 62 Middle Mississippian (late Visean, 332.5 Ma) 63 Middle Mississippian (early Visean, 341.1 Ma) 64 Early Mississippian (Tournaisian, 352.3 Ma) 65 Devono-Carboniferous Boundary (359.2 Ma) 66 Late Devonian (Famennian, 370.3 Ma) 67 Late Devonian (Frasnian, 379.9 Ma) 68 Middle Devonian (Givetian, 388.2 Ma) 69 Middle Devonian (Eifelian, 394.3 Ma) 70 Early Devonian (Emsian, 402.3 Ma) 71 Early Devonian (Pragian, 409.1 Ma) 72 Early Devonian (Lochkovian, 413.6 Ma) 73 Late Silurian (Ludlow&Pridoli, 419.5 Ma) 74 Middle Silurian (Wenlock, 425.6 Ma) 75 Early Silurian (late Llandovery, 432.1 Ma)
76 Early Silurian (early Lalndovery, 439.8 Ma) 77 Late Ordovician (Hirnantian, 444.7 Ma) 78 Late Ordovician (Ashgill, 448.3 Ma) 79 Late Ordovician (Caradoc, 456 Ma) 80 Middle Ordovician (Darwillian,464.5 Ma) 81 Early Ordovician (Arenig, 473.4 Ma) 82 Early Ordovician (Tremadoc, 480 Ma) 83 Cambro-Ordovician Boundary (488.3 Ma) 84 Late Cambrian (500 Ma) 85 early Late Cambrian (510 Ma) 86 Middle Cambrian (520 Ma) 87 Early Cambrian (533.5 Ma) 88 Cambrian/Precambrian boundary (542 Ma) 89 Late Neoproterozoic (Late Ediacaran, 560 Ma) 90 Late Neoproterozoic (Middle Ediacaran, 600 Ma) 91 Late Neoproterozoic (Early Ediacaran, 650 Ma) 92 Middle Neoproterozoic (Late Cryogenian, 690 Ma) 93 Middle Neoproterozoic (Middle Cryogenian, 750 Ma) 94 Early Neoproterozoic (Tonian, 900 Ma) 95 Late Mesoproterozoic (Stenian, 1100 Ma) 96 Middle Mesoproterozoic (Ectasian, 1300 Ma) 97 Early Mesoproterozoic (Calymmian, 1500 Ma) 98 Late Paleoproterozoic (Statherian, 1700 Ma) 99 Middle Paleoproterozoic (Orosirian, 1900 Ma) 100 Middle PaleoProterozoic (Rhyacian, 2100 Ma) 101 Early Paleoproterozoic (Siderian, 2400 Ma) 102 Archean (4000 - 2500 Ma)
103 Hadean (4600 - 4000 Ma)