Neoribates alius Fujikawa, 2007, a junior synonym of Neoribates pallidus Aoki, 1988 (Acari, Oribatida, Parakalummidae)

August 18, 2017 | Autor: Wataru Kaga | Categoria: Evolutionary Biology, Zoology
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Zootaxa 3860 (1): 092–096 /zootaxa / Copyright © 2014 Magnolia Press

ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition)



ISSN 1175-5334 (online edition)

Neoribates alius Fujikawa, 2007, a junior synonym of Neoribates pallidus Aoki, 1988 (Acari, Oribatida, Parakalummidae) SERGEY G. ERMILOV1,5, VLADIMIR M. SALAVATULIN1,2, WATARU KAGA3 & SATOSHI SHIMANO4 1

Tyumen State University, Tyumen, Russia. E-mail: [email protected] State Agrarian University of the Northern Trans-Urals, Tyumen, Russia. E-mail: [email protected] 3 Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan E-mail: [email protected] 4 Hosei University, Tokyo, Japan. E-mail: [email protected] 5 Corresponding author 2

Abstract The morphology of adult instars of two oribatid mites of the genus Neoribates, N. pallidus Aoki, 1988 and N. alius Fujikawa, 2007, is analyzed. Comparisons were based on holotype and paratypes (for N. alius) and specimens identified by the original author (for N. pallidus). Both species were described from Japan. Neoribates alius is recognized as a junior subjective synonym of N. pallidus. Key words: oribatid mites, Neoribates pallidus, N. alius, new synonym

Introduction Neoribates pallidus Aoki, 1988 (Oribatida, Parakalummidae) is distributed in the eastern Palaearctic region and Nepal (data summarized by Subías 2004, updated 2014; also personal data of the first author). It was described by Aoki (1988), based on specimens from Japan. The original description is clear, but it included only one figure (dorsal side of body). Later, Choi & Namkoong (2002) presented a short supplementary description of N. pallidus, based on specimens from Korea. Their data are similar to Aoki’s description, but they also illustrate the ventral side of body. Also, Aoki & Noguchi (2005) presented a microscope image of dorsal side N. pallidus. All three papers (Aoki 1988; Choi & Namkoong 2002; Aoki & Noguchi 2005) are incomplete, in that they neither discussed nor clearly illustrate certain body structures and setae (for example, subcapitular and epimeral setae, pedotecta II, leg solenidia) that are useful in identification of Neoribates-species. Some years ago, Fujikawa (2007) described Neoribates alius from Japan. The original description is full and well illustrated. A comparison of the three papers (Aoki 1988; Choi & Namkoong 2002; Fujikawa 2007) shows that all morphological characters (for example, body size and surface, length and morphology of prodorsal and bothridial setae, length and localization of adanal setae) of N. pallidus and N. alius are very similar. The main and objective distinctive character (see Taxonomy section below) between these species is the presence of a strong tooth on pedotectum II in N. alius (Fujikawa 2007). However, the pedotectum structure of N. pallidus was not addressed by either Aoki (1988) or Choi & Namkoong (2002). If it also has tooth on pedotecta II, morphological distinctions between this species and N. alius are absent. Our primary goal is to compare the morphology of N. pallidus and N. alius and to judge their taxonomic status.

Material and methods Three specimens of Neoribates alius (holotype and two paratypes) were received from the type collection of the National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, Japan. Specimens are mounted whole on three slides, with Hoyer's medium. Material was collected in litter, humus and soil at the gardens, grave yards and forests from Japan by T. Fujikawa and Y.

92 Accepted by E. Sidorchuk: 21 Aug. 2014; published: 3 Sept. 2014

Nakamura (see Fujikawa 2007). Holotype (male, NSMT-Ac 12104): Ehime Prefecture, Matsuyama city, Hantaji Temple, 12.I.2003; first paratype (male, NSMT-Ac 12105): Tokushima Prefecture, Tokushima city, Dainichiji, 15.I.2005; second paratype (female, NSMT-Ac 12106): Köchi Prefecture, Yasuda chö, Könomineji Temple, 17.I.2005. Type specimens of Neoribates pallidus (holotype, NSMT-Ac 9858, and nine paratopotypes are from: Japan, Kochiken, Muroto-zaki, Hitsumisaki-dera, 6.III.1980, collected by J. Aoki; three paratypes are from: Japan, Tokushima-ken, Anan city, Tachibara-cho, Kaisho-hachiman, 21.I.1979, collected by H. Harada) could not be located and are absent in the type collection of the National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, Japan. Two non-type specimens (weakly dissected) from the personal collection of J. Aoki and identified by him, were studied. Both were mounted whole on two slides in with Hoyer's medium, however, we remounted these in lactic acid on temporary cavity slides. This material was collected from Japan by J. Aoki. First specimen (female): 35°40'37.4"N, 139°43'41.2"E, Tokyo, Chiyoda-ku, “Garden” of Akasaka Detached Palace, in litter accumulated in the root of isolated tree Aphananthe aspera, 7.V.2003 (this specimen was mentioned by Aoki & Noguchi 2005); second specimen (female): 35°28'20.1"N 139°35'29.5"E, Kanagawa prefecture, Yokohama, Hodogaya-ku, “Campus” of Yokohama National University, in litter from forest of Camellia japonica, ?.V.2007.

Taxonomy Fujikawa (2007; Remark section on p. 4) listed the following morphological characters distinguishing N. alius from other representatives of the subgenus Neoribates (Neoribates): 1) pteromorph without pointed apex, 2) inner lamellar line extended from the inside of bothridium, 3) five to six pairs of genital setae, 4) pedotectum II with pointed projection (tooth), bearing insertion of epimeral seta 3c (sometimes two setae were registered). However, morphological comparisons (based on literature and our personal unpublished data) of known Neoribates (Neoribates) species shows characters 1–2 cannot be used as differences absolutely, because the pteromorphs of all species in the subgenus have a rounded apex and the attachment of the lamellar line to the bothridium is similar in all Neoribates. Character 3 is not useful, because the presence of five to six pairs of genital setae cannot distinguish it from N. pallidus, which has five pairs of genital setae (Aoki 1988; also, see below). Hence, only one objective distinctive character of N. alius was presented: the presence of a tooth on pedotectum II, which was supposed by Fujikawa (2007) to be absent in other Neoribates). After closely studying of N. pallidus (Figs. 4–7) and N. alius (Figs 8, 9), we ascertained the following. Both specimens of N. pallidus have a well-developed tooth on pedotectum II (Figs 4, 5); it is identical to the tooth in N. alius (Fig. 8; see also Fig. 2A–C in Fujikawa 2007). Overall, we noted: morphology (body color, surface and setae, prodorsum, notogaster, pteromorphs, epimeral and anogenital regions, gnathosoma and legs) between studied specimens of N. pallidus and N. alius is identical, morphological distinction absent. Based on these observations, we propose the following change: Neoribates alius Fujikawa, 2007 is a junior subjective synonym of Neoribates pallidus Aoki, 1988 (syn. nov.).

Corrections and additions to the description of Neoribates pallidus 1.

2. 3. 4.


Fujikawa (2007; her Fig. 1D) illustrated solenidion φ2 on leg tibia II as short and bacilliform, but it was drawn incorrectly: in the holotype and both paratypes of N. alius, as well as in Aoki’s non-type specimens of N. pallidus, solenidion φ2 is long, setiform (Figs 7, 9). Fujikawa (2007; her Fig. 1) described and illustrated epimeral setae as smooth. This is incorrect: all epimeral setae slightly barbed in the observed material (Figs 1, 6). Fujikawa (2007) correctly described the body integument as being smooth, but we add that it is covered by poorly developed dense, microgranular cerotegument (visible at ×1000). Fujikawa (2007; her Fig. 1) illustrated subcapitular seta h as being thinner than m. Of the studied material, this is true of only the two paratypes of N. alius; in the holotype and both Aoki’s specimens these setae have similar thickness (Fig. 3). This intraspecific variability should be considered for identification of N. pallidus in the future. Each genital plate of N. pallidus bears from four to six setae, but usually five. Aoki (1988) described five pairs of genital setae, Fujikawa (2007) – five to six. By contrast, while one of Aoki’s non-type specimens has five pairs, the other is asymmetrical, with four and five setae on right and left plates, respectively (Fig. 1). Again, this variability should be considered for identification of this species in the future.


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FIGURES 1–3. Neoribates pallidus Aoki, 1988, Aoki’s non-type specimens (all ventral aspect): 1 — genital plates and central part of epimeral region; 2 — right half of anal region; 3 — right rutellum, gena and anterior part of mentum. Scale bars (1, 3) 20 μm, (2) 50 μm.

New diagnosis of Neoribates pallidus Aoki, 1988 (=N. alius Fujikawa, 2007) (based on data from Aoki 1988, Fujikawa 2007 and our observations) With the characters of Neoribates (Neoribates) Berlese, 1914 (see Ermilov & Kalúz 2013). Body of medium size: 529–643 × 342–607 µm. Body surface smooth, but covered by thin layer of microgranular cerotegument. Rostral, lamellar and interlamellar setae well-developed, barbed. Bothridial seta clavate; head elongate oval, slightly barbed. Subcapitular seta a ciliate, h and m barbed. Pedotectum II with strong tooth, bearing insertion of epimeral seta 3c. Five (rarely four or six) pairs of genital setae present. Adanal setae short, ad3 inserted in adanal position, removed from anal aperture. Distance ad3–ad3 larger than ad1–ad1 and ad2–ad2; distance ad1–ad2 smaller than ad2–ad3. Orientation of lyrifissure iad to anal plate parallel or inverse apoanal. Tridactylous.


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FIGURES 4–9. Neoribates pallidus Aoki, 1988, transmitted light microscopy images: (4–7) Aoki’s non-type specimens; (8, 9) type specimens of N. alius Fujikawa, 2007 (8 – paratype, 9 – holotype): 4, 5, 8 — pedotectum II (Pd II) and tooth (t); 6 — epimeral seta 1b; 7, 9 — partial leg I, illustrating solenidion φ2 on tibia. Scale bars (4, 5, 7–9) 20 μm, (6) 10 μm.


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Acknowledgements We gratefully acknowledge Prof. Dr. Roy A. Norton (State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, USA) for his thorough review of this manuscript and many valuable suggestions, Dr. Jun-ichi Aoki (Japan) and Dr. Hirotsugu Ono (National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, Japan) for loaning us the material of Neoribates alius Fujikawa, 2007 and N. pallidus Aoki, 1988.

References Aoki, J. (1988) New oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) from Castanopsis forest of Muroto-zaki, South Japan. Proceedings of the Japanese Society of Systematic Zoology, 38, 26–30. Aoki, J. & Noguchi, Y. (2005) Oribatid mites of the Akasaka Imperial Gardens, Tokyo. Memoirs of the National Science Museum, Tokyo, 39, 467–477. Berlese, A. (1914) Acari nuovi. Manipulus IX. Redia, 10, 113–150. Choi, S. & Namkoong, S. (2002) Some unrecorded species of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) from Korea. Korean Journal of Soil Zoology, 7 (1–2), 23–28. Ermilov, S.G. & Kalúz, S. (2013) Two new species of Neoribates (Neoribates) (Acari, Oribatida, Parakalummidae) from India. International Journal of Acarology, 39 (5), 408–413. Fujikawa, T. (2007) Two new species of Neoribates (Neoribates) (Acari, Oribatida) from Shikoku Island, Japan. Edaphologia, 81, 1–7. Subías, L.S. (2004) Listado sistemático, sinonímico y biogeográfico de los ácaros oribátidos (Acariformes: Oribatida) del mundo (excepto fósiles). Graellsia, 60 (número extraordinario), 3–305. [online version accessed in February 2014, 577 pp.]


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