Crustaceana 87 (13) 1586-1590
PALAEMONETES KARUKERA CARVACHO, 1979, A JUNIOR SYNONYM OF LEANDER PAULENSIS ORTMANN, 1897 (DECAPODA, PALAEMONIDAE) BY FABRÍCIO LOPES CARVALHO1,3 ), SAMMY DE GRAVE2 ) and FERNANDO L. MANTELATTO1 ) 1 ) Laboratory of Bioecology and Crustacean Systematics (LBSC), Postgraduate Program in Comparative Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters at Ribeirão Preto (FFCLRP), University of São Paulo (USP), Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, CEP 14040-901, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil 2 ) Oxford University Museum of Natural History, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PW, U.K.
Palaemonetes karukera Carvacho, 1979 was described from specimens collected in a low salinity mangrove canal on the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe, but no further specimens have been reported upon since his original description. Recently, the species was transferred to Palaemon Weber, 1795 in the reappraisal of De Grave & Ashelby (2013) of selected Palaemonidae genera. Although the species has generally been accepted as valid, the illustrations in Carvacho (1979) are not totally informative and raise doubt regarding its taxonomic position as a member of the genus Palaemon, as some characters are very reminiscent of those characterizing the genus Leander Desmarest, 1849. However, the clearly illustrated branchiostegal suture (Carvacho, 1979, fig. 2A) would maintain the species in Palaemon. In view of the potentially conflicting information in Carvacho (1979), we herein re-studied the type series of Palaemonetes karukera to check the generic placement of the species. Carvacho (1979) does not indicate which specimen in the extensive type series the drawings were based on. All characters were thus checked on the female holotype, as well as a selection of paratypes of both sexes ( holotype, Rivière Lézarde, 300 m de l’embouchure, Guadeloupe MNHN-IU-2013-11282 (= MNHN-Na2744)); paratypes: same details as holotype, 1 (MNHN-IU2013-11277 (= MNHN-Na2666)); 4 9 7 ov. (MNHN-IU-2013-11276 (= MNHN-Na2666)). In contrast to fig. 2A in Carvacho (1979), we could not discern a branchiostegal suture in any of the specimens examined. The absence of this character, which 3 ) Corresponding author; e-mail: [email protected]
© Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2014
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is found in all species currently assigned to Palaemon, indicates that the species should not be placed in this genus. Although Carvacho (1979) states no appendix interna to be present on the first pleopod, we observed that the first pleopod of all males does bear an appendix interna, which furthermore was partially fused with the endopod. Within Palaemon, this character is only found in Palaemon concinnus Dana, 1852, a species that has no close relationship with other species in the genus (Ashelby et al., 2012) and for which likely a new genus will have to be erected. Finally, and not discussed nor illustrated in Carvacho (1979), the propodus of the fifth pereiopod lacks the transverse rows of setae on the distal part of the posterior margin, typical of Palaemon. The combination of these three characters clearly places P. karukera outside of Palaemon, and instead conforms to the diagnosis of Leander (see Bruce, 2002). Currently, five species are recognized within Leander, L. kempi Holthuis, 1950, L. manningi Bruce, 2002, L. paulensis Ortmann, 1897, L. plumosus Bruce, 1994 and L. tenuicornis (Say, 1818), of which two occur in the Atlantic. A careful examination of the type series of P. karukera with the descriptions and illustrations of L. paulensis in Manning (1961) and Ramos-Porto (1986), as well as specimens examined herein (see below) reveals no significant differences. Notably the lack of sexual rostral dimorphism, the poorly developed mandibular palp (although more developed in specimens from Florida, see Manning, 1961), the convex anterolateral margin of the basal antennular segment and its small anterolateral tooth, the short stylocerite, the slender scaphocerite in both sexes and the armature of the fingers of the second pereiopod, are identical between both taxa. Therefore, Palaemonetes karukera Carvacho, 1979 is herein considered to be a junior synonym of Leander paulensis Ortmann, 1897. A revised diagnosis for L. paulensis follows, as well as a restricted synonymy, and notes on the distribution of the species. Family PALAEMONIDAE Rafinesque, 1815 Leander paulensis Ortmann, 1897 Leander paulensis Ortmann, 1897: 192, Plate 1, fig. 14.— Manning, 1961: 526; figs. 1, 2a, b, d.— Ramos-Porto, 1986: 10, figs. 1-4.— Ferreira, Vieira & D’Incao, 2010: 6, fig. 5. = Palaemonetes karukera Carvacho, 1979: 449, fig. 2-3 (syn. nov.) [type locality Rivière Lézarde, 300 m from the mouth, Guadeloupe]. Type locality.— São Sebastião Channel, São Paulo, Brazil. Material examined.— Baía de Camamu, Bahia, Brazil, 1 2 ov. , leg. A. O. Almeida, 19 December 2004 (CCDB 0375); enseada de Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil, 2 2 11 ov. , leg. Costa et al., 7 July 2011 (CCDB 3428); praia do Lamberto, Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil, 2 2 , leg. F. L. Carvalho, 9 April, 2013 (CCDB 5038); estuário de Cananéia, São Paulo, Brazil, 2 ov. , leg. R. C. Costa et al., 17 April 2011 (CCDB 3225); estuário de Cananéia, São Paulo, Brazil, 3
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1 , leg. R. C. Costa et al., 18 April 2011 (CCDB 3229); estuário de Cananéia, São Paulo, Brazil, 10 14 2 ov. , leg. R. C. Costa et al., 29 August 2011 (CCDB 0742); baía Formosa, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, 4 1 ov. , leg. M. Lopes & A. Carvalho-Batista, 25 April 2014 (CCDB 5377).
Diagnosis.— Rostrum straight or slightly curved upward, overreaching end of scaphocerite, dorsal margin with 10 to 16 teeth, first 2-3 teeth behind orbit, ventral margin with 4-6 teeth. Carapace without branchiostegal suture; antennal and branchiostegal teeth present. First segment of the antennular peduncle with anterolateral margin convex, bearing a small anterolateral tooth. Stylocerite reaching the middle of first antennular segment. Mandibular palp present, usually reduced. Scaphocerite distally slender; lateral border straight or slightly concave; anterolateral tooth overreaching the tip of the lamella. First pleopod of males bearing an appendix interna partially fused with endopod. Geographic distribution.— Western Atlantic: Florida, U.S.A. (Rathbun, 1901; Manning, 1961); Gatun and Miraflores Locks, Panama (Abele & Kim, 1989); Puerto Rico (Rathbun, 1901), Guadeloupe (Carvacho, 1979, as P. karukera), Curaçao (Schmitt, 1924); Brazil (Maranhão, Ceará, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Bahia, São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina) (Ortmann, 1897; Fausto-Filho, 1968; RamosPorto, 1986; Ramos-Porto & Coelho, 1990; Ferreira et al., 2010; Machado et al., 2010). Herein the species is recorded for the first time in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Schmitt (1935) also gives Cuba under the distribution of the species, whilst Ferreira et al. (2010) list the species as occurring in the Virgin Islands. Neither of these records could be substantiated and the occurrence of the species in these two areas requires confirmation. García-Madrigal et al. (2002) record the species from an unspecified location in Quintana Roo (Mexico), a doubtful record, given the lack of suitable habitat in the area. Wicksten & Hendrickx (1992) listed the species as occurring in the East Pacific, on the basis of the single male reported from Miraflores Locks by Abele & Kim (1989), but retracted this record in their revised checklist (Wicksten & Hendrickx, 2003). Ecology.— Leander paulensis is commonly found associated with algae and marine phanerogams in shallow water (up to a depth of 16 m) and near estuaries and mangroves. Considering its fecundity and environment, it is thought to have extended larval development. Colour.— The colour can vary from transparent to dark blue, with no differences noted in Brazilian material between both sexes.
We are grateful to Paula Martin-Lefevre of the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France, for the loan of the type series and to Mateus Lopes
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and Abner Carvalho-Batista for field collection of specimens in Rio Grande do Norte. FLC is supported by a Ph.D. fellowship from CNPq (140199/20110) and a “Sandwich” Ph.D. fellowship from CAPES (7711-13-1). FLM thanks FAPESP (Biota 2010/50188-8; Coleções Científicas 2009/54931-0) and CNPq (PQ 3012748/2010-5; Coleções Científicas 504322/2012-5) for support during field collections.
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— —, 1935. Crustacea Macrura and Anomura of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, 15: 125-227. W ICKSTEN , M. K. & M. E. H ENDRICKX, 1992. Checklist of penaeoid and caridean shrimps (Decapoda: Penaeoidea, Caridea) from the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Proceedings of the San Diego Society of Natural History, 9: 1-11. — — & — —, 2003. An updated checklist of benthic marine and brackish water shrimps (Decapoda: Penaeoidea, Stenopodidea, Caridea) from the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Contributions to the study of East Pacific crustaceans, 2: 49-76.
First received 8 July 2014. Final version accepted 22 September 2014.