40 Inventive principles for developing Eco-efficient Product Service Systems A TRIZ approach

October 7, 2017 | Autor: Ahmad Abdalla | Categoria: Industrial Design, Environmental Sustainability
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40 Inventive principles for developing Eco-efficient Product Service Systems A TRIZ approach

Abstract: The focus is on developing Product Service Systems (PSSs) based on the concepts of sustainability and dematerialization by developing and integrating solutions which address the existing conflicts in current economies. New efficient technologies increase demand and consumption, which in turn generate a set of conflicts between the impact of the goals of the current economies and their environmental consequences: •

Industries want more consumer demands to increase the quantity of products sold while, through traditional production means, this leads to problems in sustainability which jeopardizes the well being of future generations.

More production requires consumption of more row materials which leads to more production of waste thus causing environmental degradation.

PSSs play a prominent role in finding solutions to these conflicts. PSSs have the potential to generate changes in production and consumption patterns that will accelerate the shift towards societies with more sustainable practices, cleaner and more sustainable production, as well as reduced consumption. Sustainability, on the other hand, is the essence of TRIZ. Many fundamental concepts of TRIZ involve sustainability principles. For example the ideality concept implies “an ideal system which is one that does not exist but its function is delivered” (Salamatov, 1999). Ideality is very sustainable and involves the delivery of functions without resource


exploitation, avoiding harmful environmental impacts associated with current systems of production and utilizing waste as a resource awaiting a designed use within the system. These methods achieve higher sustainability and cleaner production. Considering sustainability as a core aim makes TRIZ an excellent methodology for the development of PSSs. This paper presents 40 inventive principles derived from the analysis of existing PSSs examples and case studies as well as from the experiences of various recently EU funded projects. PSSs development methods and tools Recent research projects have presented various methodologies used in PSS development, for example: the DES (Designing Eco-efficient Services) methodology (Brezet et al, 2001), the MEPSS (Methodology development and Evaluation of PSS) methodology (MEPPS, 2001), a blue print model for implementing PSSs for consumer products (Yang et al, 2004), Sustainable Product and/or Service Development (SPSD) (Maxwell et al, 2004), The Business Models for Inherently Sustainable Systems (BISS) (Van der Horst et al, 2004). These methodologies emphasize more the organizational and management aspects of the development process and focus less on problem-definition and solution approaches. The different methodologies include strategic tools that cover similar stages for analysis, ideas generation and evaluation to detail a PSS concept while stopping short of addressing technical issues and clarifying how to achieve these processes. Simon et al (1998), Tischner and Martijn (2002) and Baumann et al (2002) have conducted analysis and synthesis of the tools used in the development of PSSs. Those


methods and tools have been categorized according to their emphasis and applicability to the ecodesign stage (analysis, reporting, prioritisation, or improvement), according to their level of detail (systems, products, or components) and the PSSs development phases, success/failure factors, and the tools relevant to these factors. These methods and tools are categorized as: Idea generation and management tools; Analysis and Assessment tools; Environmental analysis tools; and Project general process management tools. Despite the fact that the excellence of TRIZ enjoys world-wide recognition in product development and problem solving and that its application has been disseminated to other fields (e.g. administration (Hooper et al, 1998), organization (Hipple, 1999), business (Mann and Domb, 1999), Social (Terninko, 2001), Services (Zhang et al, 2003) quality issues (Retseptor, 2003)) TRIZ has not been given its due recognition in the development of PSSs. There has been some interest in showing the eco-capabilities of the TRIZ methodology. For example Jantschgi and Mann (2005) described the training course SUPPORT which was developed in the framework of the European Leonardo da Vinci programme which aimed to help companies build up environmentally sound innovation management systems. The approach combines “cleaner production” tools with some of the tools of TRIZ. Another example is the work of Chen and Liu (2003) who studied the 39 engineering parameters of the contradiction matrix according to their eco-efficiency. Then, they identified the inventive principles that either improve or deteriorate the ecoefficient parameters (identified from the TRIZ 39 parameters). The identification of the principles was based on their frequency of appearance in the contradiction matrix.


These trials in introducing the TRIZ methodology to the field of eco-development are marginal and do not provide core specializations to the PSSs field. They are evidences that TRIZ contains tools that are sustainable in nature e.g. Ideality and resource utilisation. Additionally, the TRIZ tools have not been introduced in the different PSSs development methodologies which have resulted from the different research projects (i.e. Mepps, BISS, DES, etc) except for INNOPSE (see for example Abdalla et al, 2004, Abdalla et al, 2005) which developed a PSSs development methodology that is TRIZ based. The purpose of this paper is to present a TRIZ approach to inventive principles that are directed toward the development of eco-efficient PSSs. Such principles constitute a tool that fills a gap in the PSSs development strategies by providing problem-solving capabilities. 40 eco-efficient Inventive principles The very fact that TRIZ strategically looks at conflicts and contradictions as indicators for possible solutions makes TRIZ appropriate to solve the conflicts of the current economies. Since PSSs are combinations of products and services, the original inventive principles (i.e. the original 40 inventive principles developed by Altshuller (2001)) still apply to the development of PSSs, especially when it deals with addressing pure technical problems. This paper presents principles that are adequate for the PSSs concepts i.e. application to products and services, sustainability, function economy, dematerialization, and the environmental awareness. The principles are:


Principle 1. Segmentation A. Segment products and materials involved in a PSS offer according to their sustainability, marking all materials using standard codes to improve re-use, refurbishment, and recycling: • Consumables: materials whose waste becomes food for other living systems (e.g. Latex breathing bags). • Indecomposable (not decomposable): products that can’t be broken down by living systems (toxins, chemicals, heavy metals) • Durables: products that are made to be leased or rented (hardware and construction tools, machinery, photocopiers, laundry equipment). • Recyclables: products that can be collected back for recycling (electronic devices and components, auto parts, plastics, etc.). B. Segment customers and markets according to the PSS trends: • Those who tend to own products (e.g. high income, high skills) • Those who tend to rent, lease, or hire products (e.g. low income, blue collars, heavy machinery users, establishments) • Those who tend to have the function of the product (e.g. busy people, institutions, governments) • Identify different types of customer requirements: use the Kano Model: Excitement, Performance, and Threshold customer satisfaction trends. • Marketing segmentation by demographics, socio-graphics, psychographics, lifestyles, etc. (creation of ‘micro-niches’ (Deschamps and Nayak, 1995:85)) C. Increase the degree of fragmentation or segmentation.


• Flexible Manufacturing Systems: (The companies adapt to the environment in which they operate, to be more flexible in their operations and to satisfy different market segments (customizability)). • To manage and optimise load portfolios in energy trading; energy markets are segmented into spot markets and future markets. • Identify and address both tangibles and intangibles when delivering new solutions. Principle 2. Extraction (Removal / Elimination) Extract (remove or separate) a "disturbing or unnecessary" part or property from an object • Eliminate the feature(s) of the product that jeopardise the efficient and harmonious functioning of the entire system (e.g. life span of some products are shorter than those of its components due to some short life span of one of its components) • Outsource and subcontract activities that are not core-competence related. • Kanban production (Just-In-Time inventory management) (Slack et al, 2004) Principle 3. Local quality A. Change the design or offer to be non-uniform. • Design for X: where X means different product characteristics that are considered as capable to improve the product’s function or environmental performance e.g. design for (longevity, durability, re-use and recycling, simplicity “modular design”, material substitution, waste reduction, substance use reduction, energy use reduction, disassembly, disposability, energy recovery) (see design for environment principle)


• Diversify offers: Franchise fast food outlets have local dishes in addition to normal product range. • Passing to the consumer the product, along with the information concerning the recovery, re-use or recycling. B. Collaborate with others to provide a complete PSS solution (see principle No. 40: Combination of offers and stakeholders). C. Make each part of an object fulfil a different function (Mann and Domb, 1999). • Organizational division by function rather than product. • Position factory or distribution centre near customers • Hire local people to acquire cultural knowledge of local customers • ‘Kids areas’ in restaurants, etc Principle 4. Asymmetry A. Change or mix the business and production models. • Business to customer (Dell), and Business to Business • Pay per use and or membership fees • Keep ownership with manufacturer • Extended Producer Responsibility ”EPR”: ensure that the responsibilities of both producers and consumers are maintained from production to final disposal or recycling (beverage containers, electrical and electronic goods, packaging industries, wastepaper, motor oils, tyres and vehicles) • Shift from mass production type products (which produces short-life products) to cross-functional products (that are function oriented and durable). • Shift from sales to sharing, pooling, renting, etc. 7

B. If an object is asymmetrical, change its degree of asymmetry. Example: Goodyear has developed a range of programs for the reuse and recycling of scrap tyres, including (White, 2001): • Tyres as a source of energy. • Ground rubber: Sports and playground surfaces, automotive floor mats, dock bumpers, railroad crossings. • Agriculture: Low speed, non-highway farm equipment, and stock feeders. • Civil engineering: Whole tyres in artificial reefs, breakwaters and walls, shredded material as road fill. • Fabricated Products: Cut or stamped products from tyre carcasses such as mat components, dock bumpers, muffler hangers, snow blower blades, etc. • Size Reduced: Crumb rubber compound functioning as a filler-extender in moulded rubber or plastic products, in athletic and recreation applications, in friction materials, and in rubber modified asphalt pavement. • Miscellaneous: From the backyard swing to flower pots, race track crash barriers, boat dock bumpers, etc. Principle 5. Combining (Merging) A. Design PSS offers that provide multi homogeneous services/functions: • Mobiles offer different communication services (Group calling, text, voice, video, mobile email, instant messenger) • Personal computers in a network (and Internet cafes); Grid Computing. • Centralized data processing services (avoids need for customers to have equipment) • Radios for emergency survival, everyday listening, alarm clocks, etc.


• TVs offer access to Internet, Satallite Communications, and videoconferencing • StadtAuto in Bremen (Germany) offers full mobility service by combining public transport and car sharing in a single “Bremer Karte plus AutoCard” (Glotz-Richter 2001). The card provides a service that combines all transportation alternatives. B. Merge heterogeneous services in one PSS offer: • A PC used for typing (with a printer), videoconferencing (webcams), calling and faxing (wit a modem), reading (e-books), internet browsing, photo album, etc. • Airbus A380 offers amenities in addition to transportation • A travel agency offering travel insurance • Cellular phones switch to cordless telephone when in range of base station and to a remote control when not used as telephone. • Telecommunications services supplied using existing electric supply infrastructure. • Brainfridge: an intelligent fridge with advertisement capabilities (provided to food suppliers) (Vergados, 2004). Principle 6. Universality Make an offer perform multiple functions; eliminate the need for other parts. • Multi-functions products (add new functions) e.g. shampoo that does not irritate eyes, for dandruff, lice, etc; a “printer, fax, scanner and copier” in a single multi-purpose machine. • Product-use services: The same product performs the function for more than one consumer: Rental cars, public transportations, publishing press, hair salons, etc. • ICT for globalization (see Electronic Expansion principle)


• MyAy (Siemens, 2005) is a mobile communications device that is equipped with a microphone, camera, speaker and a number of sensors. An infrared sensor, for example, detects moving objects in the device’s surroundings. An acceleration sensor, in turn, detects when the device itself is being moved. The temperature sensor and sound sensor installed in the MyAy make the mobile device suitable for many applications — as a mobile baby phone, for example, or as a car alarm system or an alarm for vacationing users. • Existing power lines can be utilized to provide diverse services e.g.: * Telecommunication Services: - Fast Internet access (significantly faster than via ISDN) - Telephone services * Setting up of office networks without the need for installing new wires. * Home networking, networking and remote control of electronic appliances in household. * Security and Supervision (e.g. alarm systems, supervision and control of industrial systems, pumps, plants, etc.) Principle 7. "Nested Doll" A. Perform more PSS offers in conjunction with the main offer. • A tune-up service includes oil change and tyres check, • Hotel booking including car parking, internet access, recreational facilities access, newspapers, etc. • Fruits and vegetable harvesting service offers include logistics, storage, cooling, marketing and selling, pesticide control.


B. Make the delivery of certain PSS offer a prerequisite for the delivery of another. • To book in a hotel resort you need to have a credit card (to have a credit card you need to perform a credit check and to have a bank account). • To rent a car you need to buy insurance protection (and a credit card) Principle 8. Anti-Weight A. To compensate for a harmful effect of a PSS offer (e.g. high cost) by joining other PSS offers to counteract the harm. • Provide more options with the offer: e.g. five stars hotels offer more amenities; car sharing offers: 24-hour dispatcher, child-safety seats, access to a wide variety of vehicles, car placement in diverse locations, access to food deliveries, travel agency services, bicycle rentals, bike racks, and roof carriers, etc. • Provide coupon adds (of purchase value to certain types of products) for those who subscribe in the PSS offering (e.g. subscriptions in magazines, health clubs) B. To compensate for the low market growth, introduce disruptive innovations. • Add another function: e.g. “Thick more 'time-consuming' milkshake were introduced as a disruptive innovation that offer entertainment service as a new function to attract new customers (morning commuters) for the stagnant milkshake market (Christensen and Raynor, 2003)”. • Provide product/service to meet needs of segmented customers and markets (i.e. offers for the elderly, other for the young, women, etc.) Principle 9. Prior counter-action


A. If a PSS offer causes a harmful effect (besides its main useful function), advance measures should be taken to control the harmful effects. • To avoid uncontrolled land fills, introduce labelling to show the type of products (recyclables, consumables, durables). • Mobile phones are provided with prepaid services (to control over spending) e.g. orange mobiles provided the “Mango” mobiles that only receive calls (to avoid costly bills) • Telephone companies are offering central voice mails (for their customers to avoid missing calls) • To avoid any left over unpaid electricity bills from evacuating tenants, power distributors offer prepaid electricity cards. • Polluter pays principle: ensuring that the true environmental cost during the life cycle of products is integrated into the product price (prepaid). B. Create beforehand stresses in an object that will oppose known undesirable working stresses later on. • Merchandise is pre-magnetized to deter shoplifting. • E-delivery: Databases of customers are scanned before delivery to see what is needed (to avoid going back). Principle 10. Preliminary Action A. Perform, before it is needed, the required change of an object (either fully or partially). • Prevent waste at the source (cleaner production approach, the concept of precautionary integration of environmental protection)


• Build the action in the design phase: Lawn mowers are designed such that the user has the choice of removing the grass collecting equipment. If grass collection is enforced, dispersal in situ is not an option (Probably the environmentally preferred choice regarding cutting disposal is to simply leave the cuttings where they are – on the grass – where they will mulch and decompose benignly (with the extra benefit of thus fertilizing the lawn)) (Ferrendier et al, 2002). B. Pre-arrange objects such that they can come into action from the most convenient place and without losing time for their delivery. • Via Verde (Green lane) enables its members to pass through reserved lanes at the toll payment thus avoiding traffic. The "activation" of the preinstalled identifier (within the car) debits the toll fee from the members account. (Rocha, 2000) Principle 11. Cushion in advance A. Prepare emergency means beforehand to compensate for the relatively low reliability of products thus closing the loop. • Provide material composition as a part of component (product) technical specification and related business processes to facilitate the Integrated Product Policy (IPP) principle (Nokia, 2005a, 2005b) • Identify the product's working components that are subject to wear and seek the ways to make them more durable. • Avoid the use of “dirty materials” e.g. colorants, antioxidants, softening agents, heat or UV stabilizers, fire retardants, foaming agents, degreasers, fillers, etc.


• Use more renewable materials (to avoid environmental harms), e.g. Plant fibres (in the interior of passenger cars and truck cabins, carpets), Cork “the outer bark of the “cork oak” tree” used for flooring. Principle 12. Relativity For an offer with various independent parameters, find a way to relate two independent parameters to depend on each other. • Relate time of function (purchase, delivery) or parameter (temperature, satisfaction, cleanliness, etc.) with prices e.g. receive pizza (home delivery) within 30 minutes or get it for free. Book before a certain date and receive a discount, etc. • Offer the customer an unexpected exciting offer related to him personally e.g. if it is the customer’s birthday, s/he gets a free meal (in restaurants or coupons from shopping malls) • Build a strong user-product relationships (brand names, prestige, sale offers) e.g. customers are tied to coffee through caffeine; smoking; buy two get one free; • Establish a link between the PSS offer and an existing technology or offers: e.g. training materials; printers, cameras, and other products linked to computers. Principle 13. Do it in reverse “The Other Way Round” A. Invert the direction of flow of materials. • Reverse logistics: the reuse of products and materials (collect disassemble and process used products, product parts, and/or materials in order to ensure an environmentally benign recovery). B. Make movable parts (or the external environment) fixed, and fixed parts movable.


• Go to the customer instead of the customer coming to you: home-shopping; home banking; house delivery of products and services (food, detergent delivery, newspaper); mobile car service - mechanic comes to you rather than you going to garage Principle 14. Design for environment A. Design for disassembly: to ensure easy accessibility for inspection, cleaning, repair, and replacement of vulnerable/sensitive sub-assemblies or parts e.g. aircrafts are subject to regular checks and maintenance and designed with this in mind. • Use modular design (to renovate the products without greatly changing product function). • Use detachable joints such as, screw or bayonet (standardized to be assembleddisassembled using universal tools) instead of welded, glued or soldered connections. • Use marks, signs, logos to denote the type of products. Example: Ford operates under guidelines that ensure increased recyclability of car parts. This is first achieved by better design for easier disassembly of the cars. Such design innovations include (White, 2001): • plastic soft-drink bottles are recycled into grille reinforcements; • used computer housings and telephones are recycled into grilles; • spent battery casings are recycled into splash shields; • used carpet is recycled into air cleaner assemblies and engine fan modules; • salvaged plastic bumpers are recycled into new bumper reinforcements; and • used tyres are recycled into new tyres, brake pedals, or floor mats.


B. Design for durability: integrate product functions; optimize functions; increase reliability and durability; easy maintenance and repair; strong user-product relationship C. Design for upgradeability: design modular product structures so that each module can be detached and re-manufactured in the most suitable way. D. Design for recyclability: • Select just one type of material for the product as a whole or for each sub-assembly. • If selecting one type of material is not practical, select plastics in mutually compatible groups, i.e. ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), PC (Polycarbonates), PMMA (Polymethyl methacrylate); PET (Polyethylene terephthalate); or PVC (Polyvinyl chloride). • Don't cross-contaminate metals, e.g., mixing steel components with copper; aluminium with copper or iron; or copper with mercury or beryllium. • Avoid materials which are difficult to separate such as compound materials, laminates, fillers, fire-retardants and fibreglass reinforcements. • Avoid polluting elements such as stickers that interfere with recycling, or glues and small components that are not removable. E. Design for cleaner energy sources: encouraging the use of cleaner energy such as natural gas, wind energy, hydro-electric power, fermentation, solar energy, etc. design products to use the least harmful source of energy (For example, Honda Motor Co. has designed an electric vehicle (EV) sharing system in Tokyo, Japan that uses four types of EVs suited for use by multiple drivers (Honda 1999 in Mont and Plepys, 2004).


Principle 15. Dynamics A. Make an object or its environment adjust for optimal performance at each stage of operation. • Production on demand; downloadables. • Enable customers e.g. Galaxy provides an information service to farmers which integrates GPS and yield data to allow optimal application of fertilizer within a field. The service reduces farmer’s expenditure on fertilizers and aids the environment through less usage of resources and reduced run off of fertilizer-derived pollutants. (Zaring et al. 2001) • User maintenance: Providing easy-to-follow manuals for regular maintenance and simple repairs thus reducing the costs associated with transport of products for repairs and maintenance. B. If an object (or process) is rigid or inflexible, make it movable or adaptive. • Gallery Furniture on-line shopping –the customer is able to control and move cameras to point to different products in different parts of the store from his/her home computer (www.galleryfurniture.com) • Go mobile: mobile phones, mobile Internet, mobile credit, mobile car sharing. Example: Mobile Dishwashing, Germany – domestic services. The German Federation for Environment and Nature Protection has been using a mobile dishwashing service system at outdoor festivals and markets since 1992. It reduces plastic waste by washing porcelain and stainless steel, using environmentally friendly cleaning products;


Example: M&D offers car and truck washing service at customer’s premises utilising a mobile cleaning station which traps waste water for later treatment at M&D’s premises. (Tischner and Martijn, 2002). Principle 16. Partial or Excessive Actions If 100 percent of an objective is hard to achieve using a given offer, use 'slightly less' or 'slightly more' of the same offer to simplify the problem. • If it is difficult to close the loop for the whole components of a given product, implement both close and open loop recycling. • Car rental companies have a greater variety of vehicles to maximize users’ choice. Principle 17. Transition to a New Dimension A. To move a product’s function from one PSS offer to another. • Introduce IT to improve in the products and or add a new function (e.g. using software; CNC; internal body imaging). • Recycle used materials to new products (used carpets recycled to produce geotextiles, auto interior parts; used tyres to produce energy, Sports and playground surfaces, automotive floor mats, dock bumpers, railroad crossings). • Add a service to an existing product e.g. Atag provide upgradeable ovens (upgradeability is a service). Adapting the product to changing consumer needs by changing the appearance of the oven (front, buttons), adding or deleting functions and thorough maintenance can double the economic life span of the oven (Brezet et al, 2001). B. Use a different approach to include PSS sustainability sensitive characteristics.


• Integrated Product Policy (IPP): An integrated product policy is a policy which aims at continuous improvements in the environmental performance of products and services within a life cycle context. IPP promotes environmentally less burdensome products and product service systems, shifts the trend from “Cradle to Grave” to a new paradigm of “Cradle to Cradle” • Treat products as capital assets: Products become capital assets if their environmental costs related to use and end-of-life are internalized and if the product has economic value at the end of life (durable). Principle 18. Legislative Resonance A. Cause a PSS offer to conform to the related enforced legislations (sustainability, environmental, etc.) e.g. • RoHS (Restriction of the use of certain Hazardous Substances in electrical and electronic equipment) Directive (Directive 2002/95/EC): The RoHS Directive provides for the substitution of certain heavy metals and brominated flame retardants where alternatives are available. It sets out that by 1 July 2006, no equipment may be sold containing the concerned substances. The substances subject to restrictions are the heavy metals: mercury, lead, cadmium and hexavalent chromium, and the brominated flame retardants: PBBs (polybrominated biphenyls) and PBDEs (polybrominated diphenylethers). • Directive on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) (Directive 2002/96/EC): The objective of the WEEE directive is to divert WEEE from landfills and incinerators to environmentally sound re-use and recycling. B. voluntary compliance with possible legislations.


• Directive on Batteries and Accumulators and Spent Batteries and Accumulators (EC, 2005) •

REACH: The European Commission Proposal for a new EU regulatory framework for chemicals, the proposed new system is called REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of CHemicals) (EC, 2005).

• Waste Shipment Regulation: This regulation lays down rules for the movement of waste within, into and out of the Community (new shipment regulation is currently under legislative process (EC, 2005)). • Directive establishing a framework for setting of eco-design requirements for EnergyUsing Products (EuP Directive): Integrating environmental considerations as early as possible into the product development process can be an effective policy tool to improve the environmental impact of products. The EuP Directive aims at improving the environmental performance of energy using products throughout their life-cycle by systematic integration of environmental aspects at the earliest stage of their design. • EPDs: Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs) are means of presenting quantified, life-cycle based information about a product in a standardised way. • Voluntary Product Declaration like ECMA1 TR/70 (ECMA TC38, 2004) • Voluntary Environmental Agreements and Standardization e.g. ISO standards • Practicing corporate green purchasing • Applying for and supporting the development of the Eco-label • Implement the Integrated Product Policy (IPP) principle.

1 Ecma is an international, Europe-based industry association founded in 1961 and dedicated to the standardization of information and communication systems.” See http://www.ecmainternational.org/activities/Hardware/ECMA-TR70presentation.pdf.


Principle 19. Periodic Action Instead of continuous action, use periodic or pulsating actions. • Production on demand (e.g. video-on-demand, printing of books on demand) • Batch manufacture. •

Address seasonal activities e.g. PSSs offer for summer vacations; for crops (agriculture), for back to school, for cold weather, for patients, etc.

• Road marks that store sun’s energy during the day and brighten at night. Principle 20. Continuity of Useful Action Carry on work continuously; make all parts of an object work at full load, all the time. • Manufacture products to be durable equipments: copying the trends from (Aviation industries; Transportations; Aircraft carriers and war ships; mass moving equipment (earth moving equipment, quarry equipment)). • Intelligent home: Energy suppliers continuously monitor energy use and assist customers to optimize energy use. • Continuous on-line monitoring of production lines through x-ray technology (Rheinländer, 2004). Principle 21. Use stage emphasis Reduce Use Stage Impact • Lower energy consumption e.g. each mobile phone made by Sony since 1996 has been designed so that the power supply is equipped with a supplementary transformer, relay, regulator and microprocessor. When the system is in standby mode, this additional circuitry ensures that power is sent only where it is needed.


During this time, a relay cuts off power to the main power supply transformer to prevent the waste of electricity. The benefit is substantial: in the spring of 1998 standby power consumption was less than 3 watts; in 1999, it was 1 Watt or less ; the challenge for year 2000 was 0 Watt (Ferrendier et al, 2002). • Cleaner energy sources e.g. Philips Free powered radio (powered by wind-up) • Reduce use of consumables and increase share of recyclable (and recycled) materials • No use of hazardous substances e.g. Motorola developed a lead free and a bromium free wiring phone which also reduced energy consumption by between 41 and 83 % depending on the input voltage (Ferrendier et al, 2002). • Reduce the weight of materials for the product itself & for packaging elements Example: Siemens Mobile Phone Base Stations (Siemens, 2000) uses over one third less energy. The stations are manufactured in a one year period together save over 100 megawatt of electricity (in manufacturing), thereby resulting in a reduction of CO2 emissions amounting to 90,000 tons/year (compared to predecessors). The heightened sensitivity of the unit reduces the necessary level of power for transmission by 37%, thereby extending the life of the handset batteries. In addition these improvements resulted in a 50% reduction of the manufacturing costs. Principle 22. Convert harm into benefit Use harmful factors (particularly, harmful effects of the environment or surroundings) to achieve a positive effect. • Reverse logistics: the reuse of products and materials (collect disassemble and process used products, product parts, and /or materials in order to ensure an environmentally benign recovery)


• Building on the concepts of design for environment (easy disassembly, durability, reuse and recycling). For example, Xerox document systems are designed in such a way that a large proportion can be reused or recycled in a new product from the same family. Xerox offers the same guarantee for products regardless of the reprocessed content. • Use more re-used materials (refinished doors, cleaned bricks stored for re-use, used carpets that can’t be refurbished can be reprocessed by shredding, pulverising and extruding into new products such as parking barriers, geotextiles and automotive parts or by separating the face fibres from the backing and recycling the material into new carpet. They also can be incinerated to produce energy (similar to used tyres e.g. tyres with adequate tread and/or re-treadable tyres for further use are used for agricultural use. (White, 2001)). • Introduce energy consumption and environmental protections tariffs (virgin raw material levies, packaging levies, householders waste disposal levies, landfill levies, etc.) Principle 23. Feedback A. Develop intelligent products that are capable of providing continuous feedback to the user: • Fridges, freezers and electronic cupboards supplied to households, restaurants, canteens by retailers with automatic tagging system used to re-order items as used (simplifies the ordering of groceries; avoids having to go to the retailers saving time and road congestion; monitoring accurately the use of groceries by using either bar


coding or radio frequency tagging.) an example of this is the Intelligent Living Screenfridge of Electrolux (Electrolux, 2000). • Remote diagnosis, which is being used for maintenance and reduces the impact of transport by having to send out service engineers. Example of this is the Innospexion Online monitoring and inspection services implementing the x-ray technology (Rheinländer, 2004). B. If feedback is already used, change its magnitude or influence. • ‘Co-evolutionary marketing’ - e.g. Amazon.com invites readers to write on-line book reviews; other readers often prefer these views to professional reviewer evaluations, therefore people visit the site more often • Closed loop principle: refers to materials that can be recycled into the same product repeatedly. The environmental effects of a closed-loop product will approach zero over the life of the product. This means the use of more recycled materials (flooring from used tyres, upholstery on office furniture and panels from recycled polyester, bathroom walls and floors covers from recycled glass tile), • Reproduce consumables (e.g. The Printed Circuit Board industry employs tin-lead alloys as etch resists in the manufacture of PCBs and subsequent processing resulting in the generation of large quantities of spent solutions containing high concentrations of both tin and lead. These solutions are increasingly undesirable from an environmental/disposal perspective and in terms of waste treatment costs. Shipley with two others companies, Vero Electronics Ltd and Finishing Technology Ltd developed an optimized treatment methodology and prototyped a piece of equipment which is capable of taking typical spent tin-lead stripper solutions and converte them


into reusable tin oxide and lead deposits, whilst producing a metal free liquid component that can be treated with other PCB effluent (Ferrendier et al, 2002). Principle 24. Mediator Use an intermediary to perform the PSS offer or help in its development. • Manufacture products for service providers instead of consumers or end users. (e.g. communication equipments; Electrolux Professional Appliances leases kitchen equipment to restaurants and caterers for a monthly fee; Philips leases some expensive medical equipment to hospitals and maintains them) • Sub-contract non-core business (e.g. cleaning services, transport) • Travel agents as intermediaries for other services (e.g. hotel reservations, travel insurance, guided tours, etc). • Design delivery routs and options that: consume less, cleaner, reusable packaging; utilize energy-efficient transportation and energy-efficient logistics; avoid longer product-transport distances (use local suppliers), introduce efficient forms of distribution (the simultaneous distribution of larger amounts of different goods), use standardized transport and bulk packaging (industry-standard pallets, boxes or bags), optimize routes to reduce product-transport distances and energy consumptions, reduce warehouse distance--from storage to loading--for high-turnaround products, etc. Example: Transtil is a consortium of road haulage firms in Tilburg (Netherlands). It offers a software-based freight capacity exchange service to its members. This enables haulers to gain higher loadings for their vehicles by combining loads and to better match overall supply with demand, thereby reducing costs (Zaring et al. 2001).


• Implement standard methods and tools for development and assessment e.g. LCA, ECMA TR/70, QFD, • Implement a collection/recycling/re-manufacturing system to eliminate disposal of consumables and recyclables (e.g. rebates for returning used car batteries). • Implement less energy consuming offers through: the use of lowest energyconsuming components available; design a default power-down mode; enable the switching off of clocks, stand-by functions and other non-required devices; choosing light-weight materials and designs if energy is required to move the product; if energy is used for heating or cooling, 1) ensure that appropriate components are well insulated, and 2) consider if user-needs can still be met without such energy use. • Provide clear instructions and easy to use products. • Provide mediators that minimize waste of consumables (i.e. through design) e.g., funnel-shaped filling inlets, and spring return or auto-off power switches; providing calibration marks so that users know exactly how much auxiliary/consumable material, e.g., detergent or lubricant oil, is required; and make the default position or state-of-the-product the one that is most desirable environmentally, e.g., power-down or stand-by modes Principle 25. Self-service A. Make an object serve itself by performing auxiliary helpful functions • Improve the capability of customers to be able to manage the service by themselves (e.g. e-X “where X can be: banking, learning, shopping, books”; downloads, subscriptions, etc.)


• Manufacture consumables: e.g Allegrini S.p.A., an Italian producer of detergents and cosmetics produces biodegradable detergents ((Manzini and Vezzolli, 2002); Rohner Textil designed a biological nutrient upholstery fabric called Climatex® Lifecycle™. It is entirely biodegradable and decomposable, and all components were positively selected for their environmental and human health characteristics. The fabric is made from the wool of free-ranging, humanely-sheared New Zealand sheep and Ramie, a tall, fibrous plant grown in Asia. In production, Rohner uses a list of 16 effective biological nutrients dyes. Waste material from the mill is made into felt that can be used as garden mulch, and in the cultivation of strawberries, cucumbers and a wide range of other plants. (Bollinger and Braungart, 2004). • Brand image circularity - Harvard Business School produces bright people; these people enhance the School’s reputation; hence lots of people apply; hence they only take on very bright people; bright people in equals bright people out; and so the circle re-enforces itself (Mann and Domb, 1999). • Bar-codes in supermarkets provide instant pricing information, but the system also gathers information to assist future marketing decisions • Vending machines (for cigarettes, candies, beverages, etc.) B. Use waste (or lost) resources, energy, or substances. • Re-hire retired workers for jobs where their experience is needed e.g. retired factory engineers to teach in developing countries. • Loan out temporarily under-utilised workers to other organisations (load-capacity balancing across companies - e.g. footballers - win-win situation; the player stays match fit, the loaner saves wages, the loanee fills skill shortage)


• ‘Industrial eco-systems’ e.g. plan factories so that waste heat from one operation provides power for another operation, install co-generation equipment so that waste heat can generate electricity—to be used for own operations or sell it to the electric power utility. • less energy consumption through human-powered designs; passive solar heating and rechargeable batteries (e.g. Coleman wind-up flashlight, The New Baygen Wind-Up Radio (Lee electronics, 1999) features a 4-way power system: Power by winding up the Freeplay’s generator; Set the radio in the sun and use its built-in solar panel; Charge the built-in rechargeable battery pack with the optional AC adapter.) Principle 26. Copying A. Instead of an unavailable, expensive, fragile object, use simpler and inexpensive copies. • Increase the intensity of services instead of physical products: substitute products, increase the life of products, provide the product for someone else to use, design multi-functions products, integrate products. • Tele-working (e.g. British Telecom (BT) has 4000 tele-workers saving 34000 tonnes a year of CO2) (Charter and Adams, 2003) • Provide e-alternative (e-learning, e-books, e-mails, e-billing, etc), online banking and accounting (including e-billing: AT&T estimates savings of 600000 sheets of paper from this (Charter and Adams, 2003) • Replacement of PCs by dumb terminals connected to a central server in a company (Thin Client Computing) B. Replace an object, product, or process with electronic copies.


• Simulation • Teleconferencing and videoconferencing instead of physical travel • Product-substitution service (e-mail substituting fax machines, web based information replacing directories, virtual answering services replacing answering machines. • Use a central electronic database instead of paper records in cases where multiple users would benefit from simultaneous access to data - e.g. medical records, customer data, engineering drawings, etc Principle 27. Dispose: Inexpensive, short-lived object for expensive, durable one A. Replace an expensive object with a multiple of inexpensive objects, compromising certain qualities (such as service life, for instance). • Refurbish and sale used products after upgrading or maintenance. • Implement the use of simulators (e.g. simulation software for energy portfolio management, material flaw, etc; flight simulator reduces pilot training costs). • Single Use products (to be recycled by the producer) e.g. Single Use Camera (Agfa) • Use disposable paper objects to avoid the cost of cleaning and storing durable objects. Plastic cups in motels, disposable diapers, many kinds of medical supplies. Principle 28 Product replacement A. Replace ownership of products with the function that they produce. • Utilisation over ownership: focus on utilisation and functionality rather than physical or material value. • Supermarkets pump bakery odours around the store to help advertise bread products (odours replace advertising products)


B. Use electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields to provide a solution (PSS offer). • Implement ICT solutions (see Electronic Expansion Principle) • The use of simulators • Automatic GPS sensors inform central control point where (e.g. delivery trucks or taxis) are. • Electromagnetic keys: one key opens and closes many doors (as programmed) avoiding to have a key for each door. Principle 29. knowledge and information Use knowledge and information to offer PSSs instead of physical products. • Information: PSS providers offer information about the customers’ processes, operations, environments, information about the products and their markets and information about the factors influencing them,

e.g. GPS based transport

optimization services, brokering services for used car parts, precision farming. • An engineering/manufacturing company might create an engineering consultancy business: developing methodologies as part of a consultancy; developing training courses; converting it into information products such as databases or publications etc. e.g. Sony providing MCU (multipoint conferencing unit) videoconferencing services and providing supporting services like: recording, transcription and translations; IBM offering different management services and solutions (on demand strategy, customer relations management, branch convergence “banking”, etc.) • Move the knowledge to the customer e.g. Buckman Laboratories boost the value of solving customer problems by enhancing knowledge flows from their chemical experts direct to the customer interface; Agrevo and other agrochemical companies


sell integrated pest management (IPM) in which the provider guarantees against pestrelated yield reductions and has freedom to use the most effective methods (including biological control) to achieve this (Zaring et al. 2001); Biological pest management using natural enemies (Koppert Biological Systems, 2005) • Shift from Knowledge Codification and Databases to Tradable Knowledge Assets for example trading databases e.g. fleet car managers, car reliability information (from car rental companies sold to the manufacturers); Sears issued their credit checks services based on their available database of customers; Amazon uses the history of its customers to develop customized offers. • Use knowledge objects i.e. Journal articles, patents, designs, drawings, products, procedure manuals, computer software, processes, computer databases, guidelines, best practice databases, expert systems, books, directories, videos, records, contacts (to experts). • Implement ICT as knowledge economy enablers (see Electronic Expansion principle) • Appoint a CKO (Chief Knowledge Officer). Principle 30. Flexible components and accessories A. Use flexible components and accessories instead of producing new ones. • Implement an existing design of components e.g. battery recharges (for mobiles and other wireless handsets), power supplies, display screen, keyboards, etc. instead of producing a new design. For example a printer, fax, scanner and copier in a single multi-purpose machine utilize common components such as the printing mechanism, power supply and scanning assembly to perform several different functions.


• Renewal of technically or aesthetically outdated elements, e.g., making furniture with replaceable covers that can be removed and cleaned. B. Isolate the object from the external environment using flexible shells and thin films. •


• Use packaging materials made of consumables e.g. the “NF-type MATER – BI® pellets”, a biodegradable thermoplastic material made of natural components (corn starch and vegetable oil derivatives) and of biodegradable synthetic polyesters. The material is certified as biodegradable and decomposable. It is mainly used as a raw material for the production of films that can be used for packaging, bags, agricultural mulching and so on (EC DG Environment, 2002). Principle 31. Dematerialization A. dematerialization through introduction of immaterial solutions and the reduction of materials per function (absolute dematerialization): • Replace material products with immaterial substitutes (e.g. e-mail replaces mail). •

Non-material based services (knowledge based, information or virtual economies) e.g. simulations, software applications for diagnosis and health care, patents, design services (based on knowledge, ideas and concepts); banks;

• Implementing ICT technologies as dematerialization means (see electronic expansion principle) • Genetic engineering substituted the use of pesticides • Wind and solar energy substituting fuel based electricity generation B. Dematerialization through reduction of materials per value-added (relative dematerialization)


• Make the product smaller and lighter or reduce the use of material or infrastructureintensive systems, e.g. telecommuting vs. use of automobile for work purposes, reinforcing ribs instead of using thick-walled components; Smart Car. • Take out some important elements of a product e.g. casing, packaging etc. and sell the product in reusable containers. Example: Casa Quick (from Allegrini S.p.A., an Italian producer of detergents and cosmetics) is a service providing added value to the product-life cycle, based on a home-delivery distribution of detergents. Casa Quick products are taken from mobile vans, which move from house to house, on a regular route. Each family draws down the detergents needed from the mobile van, in the quantity and quality preferred, using special containers and paying only for the quantity taken. Casa Quick consumers receive a kit of plastic flasks which are easy to carry from the house to the van, and can be filled up even if not completely empty. Information is given to consumers on how to use the products to optimize the effect and minimize the amount used (Manzini and Vezzolli, 2002) • Reduction of the use of consumables; lower/cleaner energy consumption i.e. water, food/organic materials, solvents, degreasers, oil/lubricants, abrasives, solders, etc. (e.g. avoid the use of consumables (Dyson Appliances, introduced the Dyson Dual Cyclone vacuum cleaner in the UK. It was far easier to use and eliminated vacuum cleaner bags and hence the need to buy replacement bags for the life of the machine); use a permanent filter in coffee makers instead of paper filters, avoid leaks (by installing a leak detector), re-use consumables (newer dishwashers re-circulate some wash water to reduce total water usage), optimize the use of consumables (simulation services for tooling machines)).


C. If a PSS offer is hard to dematerialize, change the type of material used (or refurbish) and or shift to functional sales. “as a strategy for increasing resource productivity, particularly by preventing generation of waste and moving towards closed-loop systems”. • Leasing concept: a company providing furniture and interior decoration services. Alternatives may even include free of charge furniture, while profit centres might be found in the payment for service. Customized solutions are other possible offers. The refurbishment of the second-hand furniture is foreseen as a business opportunity for the provision of the furniture function to the market - furniture can be renovated with some details of external design might be upgraded. • Wilkahn (http://www.wilkhahn.com/) offers a maintenance, refurbishment and endof-life disposal service for its swivel office chairs. This allows customers to extend the useful life of their chairs – and Wilkahn to reuse some components in new products – so that there is less need for new products, with consequent resource savings (Tischner and Martijn, 2002). • Dow Chemicals rent their chemical substances and takes them back at the end of use; Mobil Oil sell the supervision of motors and lubricants • Material Improvement: Cleaner materials; renewable materials; lower energy-content materials; recycled materials; recyclable materials; reduce material usage. Principle 32. Status Changes A. Re-use, Repair/Renovate Remanufacture, Recycle:


• Design for disassembly, design for upgradeability,

(see design for environment

principle); Reduce material use; Design for durability; Design reusable packaging for products; Design for recyclability. • Design parts/components to facilitate ease of cleaning/repair and retrofitting prior to re-use. • Indicate parts/components that must be lubricated or maintained in a specific way through colour coding or integral labels. • Consider the tooling requirements for re-manufacturing in the physical design of parts/components. • Consider







parts/components. Example: Second hand prams market (developed by private users) constitutes 65-75% of total sales in Sweden. The major producing company of prams in Sweden (ENG) can take the opportunity and control this market by introducing Re-use and EOL (end of life) principle. (Will also mean that the company needs to implement reverse logistics and recycling). (Mont, 2001). B. Extended producer responsibility: Transferring the costs of the environmentally significant post-consumer characteristics of products, such as waste volume, toxicity and recyclability, from local authorities to the producers. • Provide information to customers regarding proper downstream handling and disposal or recycling (e.g. Eco-labelling; product stewardship “help consumers deal with environmental and safety aspects of products”). • Develop specifications for used parts


• Product take-back (though e.g. deposit-refund systems; advance disposal fees (often used for long life products such as tyres or refrigerators e.g. Swedish fees on automobiles); material or product taxes (revenue raised by taxes can be used to fund appropriate management of the post-consumer phase of the product’s life cycle)). Example: The German Packaging Ordinance required producers to take back their packaging themselves or join the Green Dot System. The Green Dot System allows the producers to print the green dot on their packaging, and the consumers then know that this item can use the Green Dot collection system. Each household is provided with a bin for packaging that is picked up for free by the Green Dot System (DSD AG, 2005). Principle 33. Homogeneity Make objects interact with a given object of the same material (or material with identical properties). • Produce products of homogeneous parts (i.e. durable, or recyclable, or consumable components) •

Product branding/product families

Principle 34. Rejecting and Regenerating Parts Make portions of an object that have fulfilled their functions go away (discard by dissolving, evaporating, etc.) or modify them directly during operation. • Use and produce consumables •

Contract hire of specialized equipment, facilities, services

Principle 35. Parameter Changes A. Change a PSS offer along the following trend (priority to the order given):


From Product-oriented service to use-oriented service to result-oriented service (e.g. from selling a car to providing taxi services to providing the transportation function; for the documentation of patients records done by hospital doctors: a shift from selling them paper and pen to selling ready made forms (to be filled by doctors) to providing a recorder for dictation to be written by the PSS provider (the doctor writes nothing))

B. Change the concentration of offers to meet the needs of various customers in a given solution. • Adding or removing offers e.g. cars with/without various amenities; hotel rooms with/without additional services (e.g. internet connection, a choice of satellite TV stations); various types of insurance policies; first and economy flight options. C. Change the degree of flexibility in the offers. • A hotel resident has the choice of hourly access to the Internet, smoking and nonsmoking, etc. • A magazine subscriber has the option to subscribe to selected topics. • Software packages with different modules. • Design customized products (e.g. shoes (Euro-Shoe, 2004), clothes, ready-made construction parts (customized with holes that are made for windows, exhaust pipes, electricity pipes etc.), cars, offices, etc.) D. Change the mode of production and/or growth of market. • Provide disruptive innovations to the PSS offer (e.g. Interface designs decomposable carpets and experiments with biodegradable materials (such as hemp, sugar cane and corn) in order to ultimately develop a totally organic carpet) (White, 2001)


• Bio materials to be used in mobile phones productions (Nokia, 2005b) Principle 36. Phase Transitions A. Cleaner Production Transition • The precaution principle (O'Riordan, 1992): The precautionary principle calls for the reduction of anthropogenic inputs into the environment, and this call is essentially a demand for substantial redesign of the industrial system of production and consumption which relies at the moment on extensive throughput of materials • Prevention at source to reduce the discharge of residues that are toxic or environmentally hazardous. • Emphasis on a transition from fossil fuel based energy sources to more efficient energy, renewable sources (involving cogeneration and much technological inventiveness), and "appropriate scale" nuclear sources. • Promotion of deposit-refund schemes in advance of technological innovation on product development. B. Internalizing externalities (making the polluter pay): Getting the prices right, through internalizing environmental externalities into the price of a product so that its environmental impacts are accurately reflected in the price. (EC, 2005) • A firm pollutes a river and affects fishermen’s profits then the fishermen take over firm or vice versa (Merged company must take note of externality “pollution”); • Smokers pay for health care of non-smokers who are affected by smoking; • Bad driving responsible for property damage. Principle 37. Electronic Expansion (implement ICT technologies)


A. ICT for globalization: implementing ICT e.g. e-business, e-consulting, e-learning, ‘One-stop shopping’ (supermarkets sell insurance, banking services, fuel, newspapers, etc.) B. ICT as a carrier: new ICT technologies enable the development of new services, makes differentiation of products possible, facilitate individualization of services (customization of quality, quantity and time of access), and enables the standardization of products/processes e.g. Renet Recycling Network GmbH is a limited liability organization presenting information brooking services on used car components for producers (who recycle cars parts) and repair workshops. It provides producers about the state of the market place and the pattern of demand for used car components and provides the workshops information on where and under which conditions the required car components are available in the market. It links supply and demand. The main PSS is the provision of information about system conditions and acting as an intermediary essential for releasing the transactions like buying, selling, and guaranteeing spares. Application of ICT is crucial for facilitating ease of communication between supply and demand sides (Zaring et al, 2001). Another example of ICT as a carrier is the trend of the internet replacing telephones (e.g. the WiFi phone (CFSD, 2005)) C. ICT as a solution: medical monitoring, entertainment, communications, home working, e-mail for faxes, simulations, e-x “e-shopping, e-books, e-banking, etc.” D. ICT as knowledge economy enablers: for example Dell Computers became really successful when it applied technology to its marketing i.e. the Internet (Chang, 2001);


Otto offers the on-line possibility to virtually try-on clothing with customer’s own picture (Tischner and Martijn, 2002) E. ICT for dematerialization: print on demand; e-learning; e-training; e-books replacing physical hard copies books (similarly all electronic media); e-learning substituted the physical classrooms, transportation and the substitution of paper; Voice mail central service substituted many distributed machines; Videoconferencing allows the substitution of electronic communications for physical transport Principle 38. Boost Satisfaction A. Replace common offers with bundled ones. • Building management systems (BMS): energy, water and gas consumption monitoring, theft alarms monitoring, temperatures monitoring in one package e.g. Johnson Controls offer a building facilities management service, based on its own software and control devices. This reduces costs for customers by identifying and reducing energy and water wastage (Zaring et al. 2001). • Buy two get the third free. B. Replace satisfaction with excitement. •

BMS monitoring system that informs the user about a “potential” problem instantly (e.g. through e-mail, phone or SMS) about a deviation from the normal in his consumption (within short notice)

Principle 39. Utilize Environment Positive parasites: Make use of existing infrastructure: • The use of chimneys as antenna masks.


• Telecommunications services supplied using existing electric supply infrastructure. • Screen savers as a signal detection for PC grid computing indicating ideal PCs. • Biological pest management using natural enemies (Koppert Biological Systems, 2005). Principle 40. Combination of offers and stakeholders. Provide complete solutions through combining offers and establishing collaborations (Awareness and utilisation of combinations of different skills and capabilities.) • Reinforce existing offers with the introduction of new services (e.g. Launder Bar & Café (Brereton, 2005), USA –laundrette has been providing more than just washing services. Launder Bar and Café is one example, with a bar equipped with TV screens so patrons can keep an eye on their washing (Tischner and Martijn, 2002)) other additional services can include ironing and delivery. • Identify stakeholders (and collaborators) and get them involved in the planning and execution of the new solution offer. • Global Telematics (a joint venture between a vendor of Global Positioning Systems (GPS – Racal), a provider of traffic information (AA) and a mobile company (Vodafone). It provides fleet managers with 2-way communications with vehicles as well as continuous information about their location and relevant traffic conditions. The PSS is better information about customers’ activities and systems conditions (allowing for example the routing of vehicles to pick up new loads or to avoid traffic congestions) (Zaring et al, 2001)


• Construction contactors offering “key submission” for buildings/houses e.g. full contract cover: interior fit-outs, renovations, alterations and additions; financing; work of carpentry and cabinet making nature, etc. Scania, Sweden (Scania, 2005) supply a combination of services e.g. Scania Fleet Management; vehicle management, transport management services, in the Scania Service Exchange (Scania replaces an old part with a factory-renovated unit (same warranties as for the new)), financing, insurance, driver, tyres, fuel, ancillary equipment and replacements as necessary References and Bibliography Abdalla, A., Bitzer, B., Morton, D. (2004) Benchmarking TRIZ in the field of Product Service Systems “PSS”. In Proceedings of the 4th ETRIA TRIZ future conference, Florence, Italy, 3-5 Nov. Abdalla, A., Bitzer, B., Morton, D. (2005). Innovation management methods and tools for sustainable product service systems (With a Case Study). TRIZ Journal. April Issue. [Online] available: < http://www.trizjournal.com/archives/2005/04/04.pdf> Altshuller, G. (2001) 40 Principles: TRIZ Keys to technical Innovation. Worcester, MA. Baumann, H., Boons, F. and Bragd, A. (2002). Mapping the green product development field: engineering, policy and business perspectives, Journal of Cleaner Production 10, 409 - 425 Braungart, M. and Engelfried, J. (1993) The Intelligent Product System. Bulletin EPEA, Hamburg. Brezet, J.C., Bijma, A.S., Ehrenfeld, J. and Silvester, S. (2001). The Design of EcoEfficient Services: Method, tools and review of the case study based ‘Designing


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