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A Seminar On EMU LOCOMOTIVE
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A Seminar submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electrical Engineering from the Modern Institute of Engineering and Technology (affiliated to WBUT).
Guided by Mr. Arup Das & Mr. Debabrata Hazra Submitted by Atanu Bhunia
Department of Electrical Engineering, Modern Institute of Engineering and Technology (Approved by AICTE & Affiliated to WBUT) Rajhat, Bandel, Hooghly West Bengal
CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL
The Seminar entitled “EMU Locomotive” prepared
by Atanu Bhunia is
hereby approved and certified as a creditable study of a technological subject carried out and presented in a manner satisfactory to warrant its acceptance as a pre-requisite to the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electrical Engineering from the Modern Institute of Engineering and Technology, West Bengal University of Technology, for which it is submitted. It is to be understood that by this approval the undersigned do not necessarily endorse or approve any statement made, opinion expressed or conclusion drawn therein but approve the thesis only for the purpose for which it is submitted. Mr. Arup Das & Mr. Debabrata Hazra
Dr. P. K. Bhattacharyya(Principal) (Head of the Institution)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am Atanu Bhunia, is a student of Modern Institute of Engineering &
Technology, in the electrical engineering department. I compete a work on the topic of EMU Locomotive. I would like to thank all the teachers of our electrical engineering department for giving me an opportunity to undertake this work.
I also like to thank Mr. Arup Das & Mr. Debabrata Hazra for their whole hearted support and guidance in completing this work.
I also explicitly acknowledge my indebtedness to our head of the department Mr. Arup Das who have sincerely ad actively helped me with the work.
Special thanks goes to Prof. P. K. Bhattacharyya(Principal) who was always there for helping me in the completion of this work as well as the challenges that lies behind it.
I am highly obliged to director of this college Mr. Rana Deb, for giving us a complete educational environment.
At last I wold like to thank my parent, who always support me in my way of education.
Types of electric locomotive
Direct steam engine locomotive
Diesel electric locomotive
Battery electric locomotive
Block diagram of an electric
Over head line
Rail Way Break
INTRODUCTION: An electric multiple unit or EMU is a multiple unit train consisting of selfpropelled carriages, using electricity as the motive power. An EMU requires no separate s as electric traction motors are incorporated within one or a number of the carriages. Most EMUs are used for passenger trains, but some have been built or converted for specialised non-passenger roles, such as carrying mail or luggage, or in departmental use, for example as de-icing trains. An EMU is usually formed of two or more semi-permanently coupled carriages, but electrically powered single-unit railcars are also generally classed as EMUs.
EMUs are popular on commuter and suburban rail networks around the world due to their fast acceleration and pollution-free operation. Being quieter than DMUs and locomotive-drawn trains, EMUs can operate later at night and more frequently without disturbing residents living near the railway lines. In addition, tunnel design for EMU trains is simpler as provisions do not need to be made for diesel exhaust fumes, although retrofitting existing tunnels to accommodate the extra equipment needed to transmit the power to the train can be expensive and difficult if the tunnel has limited clearance.
HISTORY: The first known electric locomotive was built in 1837 by chemist Robert Davidson of Aberdeen. It was powered by galvanic cells (batteries). Davidson later built a larger locomotive named Galvani, exhibited at the Royal Scottish Society of Arts Exhibition in 1841. The seven-ton vehicle had two direct-drive reluctance motors, with fixed electromagnets acting on iron bars attached to a wooden cylinder on each axle, and simple commutators. It hauled a load of six tons at four miles per hour for a distance of one and a half miles. It was tested on the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway in September of the following year, but the limited power from batteries prevented its general use. It was destroyed by railway workers, who saw it as a threat to their security of employment. The first electric passenger train was presented by Werner von Siemens at Berlin in 1879. The locomotive was driven by a 2.2 kW, series-wound motor, and the train, consisting of the
locomotive and three cars, reached a speed of 13 km/h. During four months, the train carried 90,000 passengers on a 300-metre-long circular track. The electricity
(150 V DC) was supplied through a third insulated rail between the tracks. A contact roller was used to collect the electricity. The world's first electric tram line opened in Lichterfelde near Berlin, Germany, in 1881. It was built by Werner von Siemens (see Gross-Lichterfelde Tramway and Berlin Straßenbahn). Volk's electric railway opened in 1883 in Brighton (see Volk's Electric Railway). Also in 1883, Mödling and Hinterbrühl Tram opened near Vienna in Austria. It was the first in the world in regular service powered from an overhead line. Five years later, in the U.S. electric trolleys were pioneered in 1888 on the Richmond Union Passenger Railway, using equipment designed by Frank J. Sprague.
Much of the early development of electric locomotion was driven by the increasing use of tunnels, particularly in urban areas. Smoke from steam locomotives was noxious and municipalities were increasingly inclined to prohibit their use within their limits. The first successful working, the City and South London Railway underground line in the UK, was prompted by a clause in its enabling act prohibiting use of steam power. It opened in 1890, using electric locomotives built by Mather and Platt. Electricity quickly became the power supply of choice for subways, abetted by the Sprague's invention of multiple-unit train control in 1897. Surface and elevated rapid transit systems generally used steam until forced to convert by ordinance.
The first use of electrification on a main line was on a four-mile stretch of the Baltimore Belt Line of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) in 1895 connecting the main portion of the B&O to the new line to New York through a series of tunnels around the edges of Baltimore's downtown. Parallel tracks on the Pennsylvania Railroad had shown that coal smoke from steam locomotives would be a major operating issue and a public nuisance. Three Bo+Bo units were initially used, at the south end of the electrified section; they coupled onto the locomotive and train and pulled it through the tunnels. Railroad entrances to New York City required similar tunnels and the smoke problems were more acute there. A collision in the Park Avenue tunnel in 1902 led the New York State legislature to outlaw the use of smoke-generating locomotives south of the Harlem River after 1 July 1908. In response, electric locomotives began operation in 1904 on the New York Central Railroad. In the 1930s, the Pennsylvania Railroad, which had introduced electric locomotives because of the NYC regulation, electrified its entire territory east of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.
The Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad (the Milwaukee Road), the last transcontinental line to be built, electrified its lines across the Rocky Mountains and to the Pacific Ocean starting in 1915. A few East Coast lines, notably the Virginian Railway and the Norfolk and Western Railway, electrified short sections of their mountain crossings. However, by this point electrification in
the United States was more associated with dense urban traffic and the use of ]electric locomotives declined in the face of dieselization. Diesels shared some of the electric locomotive’s advantages over steam and the cost of building and maintaining the power supply infrastructure, which discouraged new installations, brought on the elimination of most main-line electrification outside the Northeast. Except for a few captive systems (e.g. the Black Mesa and Lake Powell), by 2000 electrification was confined to the Northeast Corridor and some commuter service; even there, freight service was handled by diesels. Development continued in Europe, where electrification was widespread.
TYPES OF ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE:
Broadly speaking, all locomotive systems may be classified into two categories: A) Non-Electric traction system: They do not involve the use of electrical energy at any stage. Examples are: steam engine locomotive system used in railways and internal-combustionengine drive used for the transport.
B) Electrical traction system: They involve the use of electrical energy at some stage or the other. They may be further sub-divided into two groups:
1. First group consists of self-contained vehicles or locomotives. Examples are : battery locomotive and diesel-electric locomotive etc. 2. 2nd group consists of vehicles which receive electric power from a distribution network fed at suitable points from either central power station or suitably-spaced sub-stations. Examples are: railway electric locomotive fed from overhead ac supply and tramways and trolly buses supplied with dc supply.
Direct Steam Engine Drive or Direct Steam Engine Locomotive: Though losing ground gradually due to various reasons, steam locomotive is still the most widely-adopted means of propulsion for railway work. Invariably, the reciprocating engine is employed because
1. It is inherently simple.
2. Connection between its cylinders and the driving wheels is simple.
3. Its speed can be controlled very easily.
However, the steam locomotive suffers from the following disadvantages: 1. Since it is difficult to install a condenser on a locomotive, the steam engine runs non-condensing and, therefore, has a low thermal efficiency of about 68 percent. 2. It has strictly limited overload capacity.
3. It is available for hauling work for about 60% of its working days, the
4. remaining 40% being spent in preparing for service, in maintenance and overhaul.
In a diesel-electric locomotive, the diesel engine drives an electrical DC generator (generally, less than 3,000 HP net for traction) or an electrical AC alternatorrectifier (generally, 3,000 or more HP net for traction) which output provides power to the traction motors. There is no mechanical connection between the engine and the wheels. The important components of diesel-electric propulsion are the diesel engine (also known as the prime mover), the main generator/alternatorrectifier, generally four (four axle) or six (six axle) traction motors and a control system consisting of the engine governor as well as electrical and/or electronic components used to control or modify the electrical supply to the traction motors,
including switchgear, rectifiers and other components. In the most elementary case, the generator may be directly connected to the motors with only very simple switchgear. Power transmission was a primary concern. As opposed to steam and electric engines, internal combustion engines work efficiently only within a limited range of turning frequencies. In light vehicles, this could be overcome by a clutch. In heavy railway vehicles, mechanical transmission never worked well or else wore out too soon. Experience with early gasoline powered locomotives and railcars was valuable for the development of diesel traction. One step towards diesel-electric transmission was petrol-electric vehicle, such as the Weitzer railmotor (1903 ff.)
Steady improvements in diesel design (many developed by Sulzer Ltd. of Switzerland, with whom Dr. Diesel was associated for a time) gradually reduced its physical size and improved its power-to-weight ratio to a point where one could be mounted in a locomotive. Once the concept of diesel-electric drive was accepted, the pace of development quickened, and by 1925 a small number of diesel locomotives of 600 horsepower were in service in the United States. In 1930, Armstrong Whitworth of the United Kingdom delivered two 1,200 hp locomotives using engines of Sulzer design to Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway of Argentina.
By the mid-1950s, with economic recovery from the Second World War, production of diesel locomotives had begun in many countries and the diesel locomotive was on its way to becoming the dominant type of locomotive. It offered greater flexibility and performance than the steam locomotive, as well as substantially lower operating and maintenance costs, other than where electric traction was in use due to policy decisions. Currently, almost all diesel locomotives are diesel-electric, although the diesel-hydraulic type was widely used between the 1950s and 1970s. The Soviet diesel locomotive TEP80-0002 lays claim to the world speed record for a diesel railed vehicle, having reached 271 km/h (168 mph) on 5 October 1993.
The world's first oil-engined railway locomotive was built for the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, England, in 1896, using an engine designed by Herbert Akroyd Stuart. It was not, strictly, a diesel because it used a hot bulb engine (also known as a semi-diesel) but it was the precursor of the diesel.
Following the expiration of Dr. Rudolf Diesel’s patent in 1912, his engine design
was successfully applied to marine propulsion and stationary applications. However, the massiveness and poor power-to-weight ratio of these early engines made them unsuitable for propelling land-based vehicles. Therefore, the engine's potential as a railroad prime mover was not initially recognized.This changed as development reduced the size and weight of the engine.
The world’s first diesel-powered locomotive was operated in the summer of 1912 on the Winterthur-Romanshorn Railroad in Switzerland, but was not a commercial success. In 1906, Rudolf Diesel, Adolf Klose and the steam and Diesel engine manufacturer Gebrüder Sulzer founded Diesel-Sulzer-Klose GmbH to manufacture Diesel-powered locomotives. Sulzer had been manufacturing Diesel engines since 1898. The Prussian State Railways ordered a Diesel locomotive from the company in 1909, and after test runs between Winterthur and Romanshorn the Dieselmechanical locomotive was delivered in Berlin in September 1912. During further test runs in 1913 several problems were found. After the First World War broke out in 1914, all further trials were stopped. The locomotive weight was 95 tonnes and the power was 883 kW with a maximum speed of 100 km/h. Small numbers of prototype diesel locomotives were produced in a number of countries through the mid-1920s.
Diesel’s advantages over steam: Diesel engines slowly eclipsed those powered by steam as the manufacturing and
operational diesel engines were high, steam locomotives were custom-made for specific railway routes and lines and, as such, economies of scale were difficult to achieve. Though more complex to produce with exacting manufacturing tolerances (1⁄10000-inch (0.0025 mm) for diesel, compared with 1⁄100-inch (0.25 m m) for steam), diesel locomotive parts were more conducive to mass production. While the steam engine manufacturer Baldwin offered almost five hundred steam models in its heyday, EMD offered fewer than ten diesel varieties.
Diesel locomotives offer significant operating advantages over steam locomotives. They can safely be operated by one person, making them ideal for switching/shunting duties in yards (although for safety reasons many main-line diesel locomotives continue to have 2-man crews) and the operating environment is much more attractive, being much quieter, fully weatherproof and without the dirt and efficiencies of the former made them cheaper to own and operate. While initial costs of heat that is an inevitable part of operating a steam locomotive. Diesel locomotives can be worked in multiple with a single crew controlling multiple locomotives throughout a single train—something not practical with steam locomotives. This brought greater efficiencies to the operator, as individual locomotives could be relatively low-powered for use as a single unit on light duties but marshaled together to provide the power needed on a heavy train still under the control of a single crew. With steam traction a single very
powerful and expensive locomotive was required for the heaviest trains or the operator resorted to double heading with multiple locomotives and crews, a method which was also expensive and brought with it its own operating difficulties.
Diesel engines can be started and stopped almost instantly, meaning that a diesel locomotive has the potential to incur no costs when not being used. However, it is still the practice of large North American railroads to use straight water as a coolant in diesel engines instead of coolants that incorporate anti-freezing properties; this results in diesel locomotives being left idling when parked in cold climates instead of being completely shut down. Still, a diesel engine can be left idling unattended for hours or even days, especially since practically every diesel engine used in locomotives has systems that automatically shut the engine down if problems such as a loss of oil pressure or coolant loss occur. In recent years, automatic start/stop systems such as SmartStart have been adopted, which monitor coolant and engine temperatures. When these temperatures show that the unit is close to having its coolant freeze, the system restarts the diesel engine to warm the coolant and other systems.
Steam locomotives, by comparison, require intensive maintenance, lubrication, and cleaning before, during, and after use. Preparing and firing a steam locomotive for
use from cold can take many hours, although it may be kept in readiness between uses with a small fire to maintain a slight heat in the boiler, but this requires regular stoking and frequent attention to maintain the level of water in the boiler. This may be necessary to prevent the water in the boiler freezing in cold climates, so long as the water supply itself is not frozen.
Moreover, maintenance and operational costs of steam locomotives were much higher than diesel counterparts even though it took diesel locomotives almost 50 years to reach the same power output that steam locomotives could achieve at their technological height. Annual maintenance costs for steam locomotives accounted for 25% of the initial purchase price. Spare parts were cast from wooden masters for specific locomotives. The sheer number of unique steam locomotives meant that there was no feasible way for spare-part inventories to be maintained. With diesel locomotives spare parts could be mass-produced and held in stock ready for use and many parts and sub-assemblies could be standardised across an operator's fleet using different models of locomotive from the same builder. Parts could be interchanged between diesel locomotives of the same or similar design, reducing down-time; for example, a locomotive's faulty prime mover may be removed and quickly replaced with another spare unit, allowing the locomotive to return to service whilst the original prime mover is repaired (and which can in turn be held in reserve to be fitted to another locomotive). Repair or overhaul of the
main workings of a steam locomotive required the locomotive to be out of service for as long as it took for the work to be carried out in full.
Steam engines also required large quantities of coal and water, which were expensive variable operating costs. Further, the thermal efficiency of steam was considerably less than that of diesel engines. Diesel’s theoretical studies demonstrated potential thermal efficiencies for a compression ignition engine of 36% (compared with 6–10% for steam), and an 1897 one-cylinder prototype operated at a remarkable 26% efficiency.
By the mid-1960s, diesel locomotives had effectively replaced steam engines where electric traction was not in use.
BATTERY-ELLECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE: A battery locomotive (or battery-electric locomotive) is powered by on-board batteries; a kind of battery electric vehicle. Such locomotives are used where a conventional diesel or electric locomotive would be unsuitable. An example is maintenance trains on electrified lines when the electricity supply is turned off, such as by the London Underground battery-electric locomotives.
Another use for battery locomotives is in industrial facilities where a combustionpowered locomotive (i.e., steam- or diesel-powered) could cause a safety issue, due to the risks of fire, explosion or fumes in a confined space. Battery locomotives are preferred for mines where gas could be ignited by trolley-powered units arcing at the collection shoes, or where electrical resistance could develop in the supply or return circuits, especially at rail joints, and allow dangerous current leakage into the ground. An early example was at the Kennecott Copper Mine, Latouche, Alaska, where in 1917 the underground haulage ways were widened to enable working by two battery locomotives of 4½ tons.
In 1928, Kennecott Copper ordered four 700-series electric locomotives with onboard batteries. These locomotives weighed 85 tons and operated on 750-volt overhead trolley wire with considerable further range whilst running on batteries. The locomotives provided several decades of service using Nickel-iron battery (Edison) technology. The batteries were replaced with lead-acid batteries, and the locomotives were retired shortly afterward. All four locomotives were donated to museums, but one was scrapped. The others can be seen at the Boone and Scenic Valley Railroad, Iowa, and at the Western Railway Museum in Rio Vista, California.
DIRECT AND ALTERNATING CURRENT: The most fundamental difference lies in the choice of AC or DC. The earliest
systems used DC as AC was not well understood and insulation material for hig h voltage lines was not available. DC locomotives typically run at relatively low voltage (600 to 3,000 volts); the equipment is therefore relatively massive because the currents involved are large in order to transmit sufficient power. Power must be supplied at frequent intervals as the high currents result in large transmission system losses.
As AC motors were developed, they became the predominant type, particularly on longer routes. High voltages (tens of thousands of volts) are used because this allows the use of low currents; transmission losses are proportional to the square of the current (e.g. twice the current means four times the loss). Thus, high power can be conducted over long distances on lighter and cheaper wires. Transformers in the locomotives transform this power to a low voltage and high current for the motors. A similar high voltage, low current system could not be employed with direct current locomotives because there is no easy way to do the voltage/current transformation for DC so efficiently as achieved by AC transformers.
AC traction still occasionally uses dual overhead wires instead of single phase lines. The resulting three-phase current drives induction motors, which do not have sensitive commutators and permit easy realisation of a regenerative brake. Speed is
controlled by changing the number of pole pairs in the stator circuit, with acceleration controlled by switching additional resistors in, or out, of the rotor circuit. The two-phase lines are heavy and complicated near switches, where the phases have to cross each other. The system was widely used in northern Italy until 1976 and is still in use on some Swiss rack railways. The simple feasibility of a fail-safe electric brake is an advantage of the system, while speed control and the two-phase lines are problematic.
Pantograph (rail): A pantograph (or "pan") is an apparatus mounted on the roof of an electric train or tram to collect power through contact with an overhead catenary wire. Typically a single wire is used, with the return current running through the track. The term stems from the resemblance of some styles to the mechanical pantographs used for copying handwriting and drawings.
The electric transmission system for modern electric rail systems consists of an upper weight carrying wire (known as a catenary) from which is suspended a contact wire. The pantograph is spring-loaded and pushes a contact shoe up against the underside of the contact wire to draw the electricity needed to run the train. The steel rails of the tracks act as the electrical return. As the train moves, the contact shoe slides along the wire and can set up acoustical standing waves in the wires which break the contact and degrade current collection. This means that on some systems adjacent pantographs are not permitted.
Pantographs are the successor technology to trolley poles, which were widely used on early streetcar systems. Trolley poles are still used by trolleybuses, whose freedom of movement and need for a two-wire circuit makes pantographs impractical, and some streetcar networks, such as the Toronto Streetcar System, which have frequent turns sharp enough to require additional freedom of movement in their current collection to ensure unbroken contact.
Pantographs with overhead wires are now the dominant form of current collection for modern electric trains because, although more fragile than a third-rail system, they allow the use of higher voltages.
Pantographs are typically operated by compressed air from the vehicle's braking
system, either to raise the unit and hold it against the conductor or, when springs are used to effect the extension, to lower it. As a precaution against loss of pressure in the second case, the arm is held in the down position by a catch. For highvoltage systems, the same air supply is used to "blow out" the electric arc when roof-mounted circuit breakers are used
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF AN ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE:
Overhead line: An overhead line, or overhead wire, is used to transmit electrical energy to trams, trolleybuses or trains at a distance from the energy supply point. It is known variously as
Overhead contact system (OCS) Overhead line equipment (OLE or OHLE) Overhead equipment (OHE) Overhead wiring (OHW) or overhead lines (OHL) Catenary Trolley Wire
In this article the generic term overhead line is used. This is also the term used by the International Union of Railways.
Overhead line is designed on the principle of one or more overhead wires or rails (particularly in tunnels) situated over rail tracks, raised to a high electrical potential by connection to feeder stations at regular intervals. The feeder stations are usually fed from a high-voltage electrical grid.
Railway brake: Brakes are used on the cars of railway trains to enable deceleration, control acceleration (downhill) or to keep them standing when parked. While the basic principle is familiar from road vehicle usage, operational features are more complex because of the need to control multiple linked carriages and to be effective on vehicles left without a prime mover. Clasp brakes are one type of brakes historically used on trains.
CONCLUSION: Obviously, for lack of space, a whole range of issues have been left undealt with,but theyare of no less importance: maximum starting efforts and couplings, load capacity and inservicepower, the influence of the vehicles’ lateral and vertical dynamics, generationsystems, energy transport and capture, pantographs and floaters, service automation andtraction control, regenerative brakes and energy recovery systems, and a long etcetera.As a final conclusion, the most current areas of progress in research, development andinnovation and their future prospects are mainly directed towards achieving a railway thatis better adapted to the new global needs of mobility, sustainability and respect for theenvironment: a. More efficient systems for generating, transporting, capturing, transforming, utilising,regulating and recovering energy. b. Traction control and service automation systems, regenerative braking and energystorage systems, reversible electrical supply sub-stations and rail traffic management. c. Multidisciplinary optimisation of infrastructure and vehicle design. d. The design implications of vehicles, infrastructures and systems in energy consumptionand the environmental impact of transport. e. Optimisation of vehicles and infrastructures for their use in multimodal systems.
f. Calculation systems, predicting and optimising energy consumption and emissions. g. Foreseeable consequences of technological development on the innovation of vehiclesand infrastructures for sustainable mobility
References 1. www.google.com 2. A TEXT BOOK OF ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY-B.L.THERAJA & A.K.THERAJA . 3. WWW.WIKIPEDIA.COM